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cyanobacteria, kelp, Sargassum

producer

bacteria

decomposer

flounder, starfish

consumer

by-catch

incidental catch

mariculture

farming of commercial shellfish and finfish

Marine Mammals Act of 1992

dolphin protection

maximum sustainable yield

catch without reducing the population of target species

standing stock

available biomass of target species

The by-products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).

False

Bacteria that manufacture carbohydrates from inorganic carbon in the absence of solar energy are autotrophs.

True

Net primary production can be estimated as the amount of photosynthesis plus the amount of respiration.

False

The group of marine macro algae with the highest abundance and greatest geographic distribution belong to the Division Rhodophyta.

True

Diatoms are classified as members of the Division Chlorophyta.

False

Marine algae that grow close to the limits of light penetration have accessory photosynthetic pigments that absorb high energy, short-wavelength light in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

True

Eutrophication results in an overabundance of organic matter.

True

Tropical marine waters have the highest rate of primary productivity in the world's oceans.

False

Energy flow is unidirectional in contrast to nutrients, which cycle in ecosystems.

True

If the total caloric content of the autotrophic organisms in a marine ecosystem were 250,000 KCAL, then the expected caloric value for the second-level consumers would be 25,000 KCAL.

False

Consumers, producers, and decomposers are all examples of categories of organisms within an ecosystem.

True

In primary production:

there is a net gain in organic carbon

Bacteria that make their own carbohydrates by obtaining energy from chemical compounds and not directly from the sun are:

Chemosynthetic bacteria

Net primary productivity is:

A and B are correct.

The nutrients that tend to limit photosynthesis in marine environments include:

B and C are correct.

The depth at which the cellular respiration rate equals the photosynthetic rate is referred to as the:

compensation depth for photosynthesis.

The most abundant marine macro algae are members of the Division:

Rhodophyta.

Diatoms, important producers in the epipelagic open ocean, are members of the Division:

Chrysophyta.

The organism that is responsible for red tides and paralytic shellfish poisoning belongs to the Division:

Pyrrophyta.

Important marine autotrophs that have SiO2 incorporated in the cell walls are:

diatoms.

Marine flowering plants include all of the following except:

Ulva.

Overproduction of organic matter resulting in anoxic conditions is attributed to:

eutrophication.

Harmful algal blooms (HABs):

may produce toxins that affect human neurological functioning.

Eutrophication is a type of pollution caused by increased:

inorganic nutrient input.

The relative productivity in the world's oceans from most productive to least productive is:

polar waters, temperate waters, tropical waters

In temperate oceans during the winter months:

nutrient concentrations are high, solar input is low, and water temperatures decrease

In temperate oceans during the summer months:

nutrient concentrations are low, solar input is high, and oxygen solubility decreases.

Although primary productivity in tropical areas is generally low, which of the following tropical locations have relatively high primary productivity rates?

All of the above tropical areas have relatively high primary productivity.

An area of the open ocean where the rate of primary productivity is very low is referred to as a(n):

oligotrophic area.

Productivity in polar oceans is:

light-limited.

Productivity in tropical oceans is:

nutrient-limited.

If 10,000 KCAL of energy were contained in the primary producers, on average how many KCAL of energy would you expect to be transferred to third-order consumers

10 KCAL

Nutrient flow in an ecosystem is:

cyclic.

Energy flow in an ecosystem is:

unidirectional.

The efficiency of trophic transfers in ecosystems is on average around:

10%.

Which of the following pairs is an incorrect match between organisms and the type of symbiotic relationship they manifest?

whale-barnacle: mutualism

The percentage of biomass regularly recycled in the euphotic zone is about:

90%.

The percentage of euphotic zone biomass that reaches the deep ocean floor is approximately:

1%.

A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected is:

commensalism.

The relationship between cyanobacteria and fungi that results in a lichen is an example of:

mutualism.

The maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is best defined as:

largest catch that can be taken without overfishing.

The area of the ocean that produces the largest standing stock of commercial fish is in the:

continental shelves.

The term bycatch refers to:

non-target species that are caught along with commercial species.

All the following are effective means of regulating fisheries except:

Limiting the size of the boat.

Catches above the maximum sustainable yield

result in overfishing.

Purse seines are nets that:

surround and trap fishes.

The mass present at a given time of a population of fish is called its:

standing stock.

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