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contributions made by the greeks

olympics, science & math, drama & poetry, medicine, mythology, paintings & sculptures, philosophy, classical literature, & law govt. & democracy

greeks created gods _______________

in their own image

values held dear by the greeks

beauty, marriage & infidelity, love & hate, peace & war, trust & betrayal, & innocence & lust

what is mythology

an attempt to provide answers to ?'s a/b the world

which primitive civilizations have their own mythologies

greeks, romans, aztecs, egyptians, indians, chinese, native americans, & vikings

what do many great mythologies share the 2 stories of

1) creation of man from dust & 2) flood that destroyed the earth

there are more than ___ flood stories & historic records in the world

270

chinese folklore

fuhi(father of chinese civilization) escaped great flood w/ wife, 3 sons, & 3 daughters. painting-fuhi's boat in water w/ dove carrying olive branch swimming toward it

lenni lenape indians in north america

time when powerful snake made all men evil. sent water to destroy everthing. man named monabozho (gfather of all men) saved by riding on the back of a great turtle

in the beginning there was ____

chaos-modern meaning confusion. comes from greek word that means abyss

who created the mtns & the seas

gaea(mother earth)

who did gaea marry

uranus(sky)

gaea & uranus' children

12 titans, 3 cyclopes, & 3 monsters

what did uranus do w/ his children

he decided to imprison them in the depths of the earth

why did gaea want to kill uranus

b/c she disapproved of him imprisoning their children

who was the one child that would help gaea kill uranus

cronus

how did cronus kill uranus

he crept into his room at night, killed him, & mutilated his body

how was aphrodite brought into the world

she arose from the foam in the sea where cronus had thrown uranus' body parts into the sea

aphrodite is the goddess of _____________________

love, beauty, & romance

cronus now became leader of the ______, even though he was the _______

titans; youngest

oceanus married _________

tethys. and they gave birth to the earth's rivers

who were hyperion & theia's children

helios-(the sun), selene-(the moon), and eos-(the dawn)

iapetus mated w/ the nymph _______ & they produced _____________________________

clymens; atlas, prometheus, epimetheus, and menocticus

cronus married ________, & they gave gave birth to the first 6 gods _____________________________

rhea; zeus, hades, poseidon, (female...)hera, demeter, & hestia

b/c cronus was fearful that one of his children would murder him, what did he do to each child as it was born

swallowed them

rhea sneaked away ____ in a ______ w/ his gmother, _____

zeus; cave; gaea

who did zeus marry

metis, a titan daughter(goddess of prudence)

what did metis advise zeus to do

to create allies to overthrow cronus. she gave cronus herb that she promised to make cronus "unconquerable" but it caused him to vomit up children & rock

zeus ________ & _______

banished cronus to the ends of the earth; set himself up as master of the universe

the titans rebelled against the gods all except

oreanus, epimetheus, & prometheus

prometheus' name means

"foresight" (he knew how the battle would end & he sided w/ winners)

how long did the battle last

10 yrs

zeus released ___________

the cyclopes & other monstrous children of uranus

how did the cyclopes reward him for releasing them

they gave zeus a thunderbolt used to create fire from heaven

after the titans were defeated what happd to them

zeus severly punished them by bounding most of them w/ chains & threw them into the depths of the earth

all except ______________.

atlas, whose job was to hold up the sky while standing at the edge of the earth

zeus=

master of the skies & earth

who taught men how to walk

epimetheus

poseidon=

god of the seas & oceans

hades=

lord of the underworld

what is the underworld

where the shades of the dead go for reward or punishment after death

hera......(sister of zeus)

became zeus' wife & patron goddess of family & marriage

demeter........(sister of zeus)

oversaw task of helping to grow crops

hestia.....(sister of zeus)

virgin goddess. worshipped by women who dedicated themselves to chastity

sons of hera & zeus

ares(god of war) & hephaestus (god of forge, but became blacksmith of the gods)

b4 zeus married hera, who did he marry

metis- produced athene(unusual birth)

she became the goddess of ...

wisdom

with leto (daughter of titan, coeus), zeus produced twins _________ & ______

apollo & artemis

apollo was the god of the....

sun

artemis was the goddess of the....

moon

with maia(daughter of atlas), they produced....

hermes "herald of the gods"

with dione, zeus produced

aphrodite

gaea created ______ & ________, b/c she __________

typhon & echidna(created to defeat zeus), b/c she was angry that zeus had confined the titans in tarturus

everybody fled from typhon & echidna by

disquising themselves as animals

zeus pinned typhon under

mt. etna ... making him a volcano

what did echidna do

she fled to a cave

who were echidnas children that zeus allowed to live

nemean lion, cerberus, ladon, chimera, sphinx, & hydra

who finally made peace w/ who

gaea made peace w/ zeus

where did the cyclopes build a palace for the gods

mt. olympus

who was the messenger of the gods

iris (rainbow) between earth & olympus

why did the gods reign for many years & why were they unable to die

b/c ichor flowed through their veins

gods never died.....why.......

b/c they live on in myths & in the constellations

pan?

the great earth god, the god of woods & fields. half man & half goat

pan often played his

"pipes" - set of tubes made of reeds bound together

was pan often seen?

noo but wheneva he played his music, ppl who were in the woods would panic!!! bahahahahaha.

nymphssssssss

beautiful young women who guarded different parts of nature

dryads

nymphs that lived in tha woods & dwelled inside trees

nereids

daughters of poseidon that lived in the sea

who does poseidon look like

tritan!!!!! from the little mermaid!!!!!!!!!!

the 9 muses....?!?!?!?!

-daughters of zeus & mnemosyne. - lived on heights of mounts parnassus, pindos, and helieon. - springs & streams were sacred to them. - palm & laurel. - goddesses of various arts.... mostly literature

terpsichore

choral dance & song

euterpe

lyric poetry

erato

love poetry

polyhymnia

sacred poetry

thalin

comic drama

calliope

epic poetry

melpomene

tragic drama

urania

astronomy

clio

history

poets in need of inspiration have called upon _________ for centuries

the 9 muses

who were the 3 goddesses that controlled the destiny of every mortal

the fates

3 fates

clotho- spun threads of person's youth. lachesis- wound them on spindle. atropos- eldest symbol of death who cut threads w/ shears

the gods who lived on mt. olympus had control over

earth & nature, but they had no decision of length of handiwork

gods could not interfere with whattttt

the wrk. of these 3 sistas

who was the greatest of the titans

prometheus!

what does epimetheus' name mean....?

"hindsight"

from now on pro. = prometheus

: ]

what did pro. make men out of to please zeus

clay

what power did epimetheus give to humans

powers to make them greater than the animals

pro. knew that humans needed ability to...

think! he taught them all the things that athene had taught him

pro. still believed that humans needed

fire

did pro. defy zeus

yes

where did pro. make fire

from the hearth on mt. olympus. caught spark in hollow fennel stalk & built bonfire for men

were humans amazed by fire

Yeah!! and thay drew close!

pro. would have to teach men to use fire how?

wisely....

what did pro. teach humans in addition

- how to build houses. - basics a/b medicine. - how to write. - how to figure arithmetic

why was zeus fearful

b/c pro. had strengthened the human race & he was scared humans would rebel against the gods

who did zeus send

twin giants. kratos ( power ) & bia ( force ) to see hephaestus to have him bound pro.

did pro. see punishment coming

yep.

pro. went on a long journey & left epimetheus wit a wat!

BOX

where was pro. place of punishment

caucasus mtns.

why were the caucasus mtns. terrible

wind, lighting, & snow!

did hephaestus like punishing pro.?

no no no...pro. was good and kind!

what happnd to pro, the young titan

he was chained to a rocky cliff AND zeus sent a vulture by day to devour pro liver and intestines. at night they grew back but the next day it happd all over again...........w0ww...........

how long was this punishment to meant to last

eternity

who was eventually to free pro

hercules

who did zeus order to make pandora

hephaestus

who did hephaestus use as a model to make pandora

aphrodite

who dressed pandora

the other gods

what did the 4 seasons do to pandora

combed her hair & breathed life into her

zeus was preparing a

jar

what all went inside the jar

misery! sickness! death! hardwork! anger! jealousy! madness! hunger! old age! and hope was tucked away at the bottom

who did zeus call for to bring the woman hephaestus had made

hermes

pandora was beautiful but she couldn't.......?

speak.

who gave pandora a voice

hermes

who named pandora

hermes

what gift did zeus give pandora

curiousity

what were zeus' next orders for hephaestus

to take pandora to epimetheus & tell him that she was a peace offering & she was to be epimetheus wife. jar as dowry

who had warned who not to take gifts from the gods

pro.; epi

was epimetheus known for his intelligence

no...

did epimetheus marry pandora

yeah

what did epimetheus do with the jar

hid it from her in a cup board

did they live in marital bliss

yeah

what happened when pandora opened the jar

scream & smell & then a wind rushed out & evil came into the world

what item in the jar was buried at the bottom

hope

what's another myth for when after pan opens the box

zeus wiped out mankind w/ flood saving only deucalion & pyrrha to repopulate the earth

what character in the bible does pandora resemble

eve

what biblical figures do deucalion & pyrrha resemble

noah & wife

2 parts that make up hades

erebus & tartarus

erebus

place of arrival

tartarus

deeper region of no escape

who was queen of the underworld

persephone

who was king of the underworld

hades

who also lived there

sleep & death

what monstrous figures lived near the entrance of hades

the harpies, the gorgons, and the centaurs

who were the gorgons

3 sisters- euryale, stethro, & medusa

who were the centaurs

half man and half horse

what 5 rivers separated hades from the world above

acheron, cocytus, phlegethon, styxm and lethe

shades

(buried souls)

when you first arrived at the underworld you.........

crossed the river styx to hades

who could not cross

unburied souls

how did the greeks bury their dead

w/ coins in mouths to pay charon (ferryman on river) for passage to styx

when across the river where did they go

to lethe to drink

who was the guardian of hades

cerberus- a 3 headed dog w/ tail of dragon

who were the shades judged by

a tribunal led by hades

those who committed crimes went to

tartarus

the others went to

the elysian fields

who was in tartarus

titans, tantalus, sisyphus, exion, danards, and tityus

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