Chapter 12 - Congress

Created by KellyAppling 

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Redistricing

The process of redrawing Congressional Districts is called...

Whites

Which group is over represented in congress...

House of Representatives

Which part of goverment has always been directly chosen by the people...

Democrats

Which party controls congress?

Bicameral

Congress is...

Agency representation

The type of representation by which representatives are held accountable to their constituency if they ffail to represent that constituency properly. This is the incentive for good repressentation when the personal representative differ from those of his/her constituency...

Appropriations

The amounts of money approved by Congress in statutes (bills) that each unit or agency of government can spend..

Bicameral

Having legislative assembly composed of two chambers of houses; Opposite of unicameral...

Bill

A proposed law that has been sponsored by a member of congress and submitted to the clerk of the House or Senate...

Caucus (congressional)

an association of members of Congress based on party, interest, or social group, such as gender or race

Caucus (political)

A normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters...

Closed rule

A provision by the House Rules Committee liniting or prohibiting the introduction of amendments during debate...

Cloture

A rule allowing a majority of two-thirds or three-fifths of the members in a legislative body to set a time limit on debate over a given...

Committee Markup

Session in which a congressional committee rewrites legislation to incorporate changes discussed during hearing on the bill...

Conference

A gathering of House Republicans every two years to elect their house leaders. Democrats call their gathering caucus...

Committee Conference

A joint committee created to work out a compromise on House & Senate versions of a piece of legislation...

Constituency

The district compromising the area where an offical is elected...

delegate

he role of a representative who votes according to his/her preferences of his or her constituency...

Executive Agreement

An agreement, made between the president and another country, that has the force of a treaty but doesn't require the Senate's "advice and consent"

Fillibuster

A tactic used by members of the Senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority backs down. Once given the floor, senator have unlimited time to speak, and it requires a vote of 3/5 of the senate to end a fillibuster.

Impeachment

The formal charge by the House that a government offcial has committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemanors"

Incumbency

Holding a political office for which one is running.

Joint Committee

A legislative committee formed of member of both the House and the Senate

Logrolling

A legislative practice wherein agreements are made between legislators in voting for or against a bill. Unlike in bargaining, logrolling parties have nothing in common but their desire to exchanve support.

Majority Leader

The elected leader of the majority party in the House or Senate. In the House, the majority leader is subordinate in the party hierarchy to the speaker.

Minority leader

The elected leader of the minority party in the House or Senate

Open Rule

A provision by the House Rules Committee that permits floor debate and the addition of new amandments to the bill.

Oversight

The effort by congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activites of executive agencies.

Party vote

A roll-call vote in the House or Senate in which at least 50 percent of the members of one party take a particular position and are opposed by at least 50 percent of the members of the other party. Party votes are rare today, although they were fairly common in the 19th century.

Patronage

The resources availble to higher officals, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to conger grants, licenses, or special favors to supporters.

Pocket Veto

A presidental veto that is automatically triggered if the president does not act on a given piece of legislation passed during the final ten days of a legislative session.

Political Action Committee (PAC)

A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns

Pork barrel

Appropiations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created so that local representatives can win reelction in their home districts.

Private Bill

A proposal in Congress to provide a specific person with some kind of relief, such as a special exemption from immigration quotas

redistricting

The Process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives. This happens every ten years to reflect shifts in population or in response to legal challenges to existing districts.

Roll-Call Vote

A vote in which each legislator's yes or no vote is recorded as the clerk calls the names of members alphabetically

Select Committee

A (usually) temporary legislative committee set up to highlight or investigate a particular issue or address an issue not within the jurisdiction of existing committees

Seniority

Priority or status ranking given to an individual on the basis of length of continuous service on a committee in Congress

Sociological Representation

A type of representation in which representatives have the same racial, ethnic religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents. It is based on the principle the if two individuals are similar in background, character, interest, and perspectives, then one could correctly represent the other's views.

Speaker of the House

The chief presiding officer of the House of Reps. The Speaker is elected at the beginning of every Congress on a straight party vote. The Speaker is the most important party and House leader, and can influence the legislative aganda, the fate of individual pieces of legislation, and members' positions within the House.

Staff Agency

A legislative support agency responsible for policy analysis

Standing committee

A permanent committee with the power to propose and write legislation that covers a particular subject, such as finance or appropiations

Term limits

Legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected offical can serve

Trustee

The role of a representative who votes based on what she thinks is best for her constituency

Veto

The president's constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress. A presidential veto may be overriden by a 2/3 veto of each house of congress

Whip system

A communications network in each house of Congress; whips take polls of the membership in order to learn their intentions on specific legislative issues and to assist the majority and minority leaders in various task

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