Cell Structure and Function
|Actin Filament|| Plants, Animals|
Long, thin flexible protein fibers that occur in web. Play a structural role and allow for movement of cell and organelles.
Layer of polysaccharides outside of the cell wall that is well-organized and not easily washed off.
|Cell Envelope|| Bacteria|
Includes the plasma membrane, the cell wall, and the glycocalyx.
|Cell Wall|| Plants, Bacteria|
Outer surface that supports, shapes, and protects cell.
|Central Vacuole|| Plants|
Fluid filled sac that maintains turgor pressure, stores waste and nutrients, and degrades organelles as the cells ages.
Short cylinders of microtubles that are basal bodies for cilia and flagella. Are in centrosome.
|Basal Bodies||Centrioles forming the bases of cilia and flagella.|
|Centrosome|| Plants, Animals|
Controls microtuble assembly, lies near nucleus, helps maintain shape of the cell, and acts as tracks on which organelles can move.
Convert energy into form that can be used by cell. Have own DNA and ribosomes. E+CO2+H2O=Glucose+Oxygen
|Chromatin|| Plants, Animals|
Found in nucleus. Network of strands that turns into chromosomes just before the cell divides. Contains DNA and protein.
Plastid that is responsible for color in plants.
Hairlike projections that help cells move, and help keep area clean.
|Cytoplasm|| Plants, Animals, Bacteria|
Semi-fluid solution with water and inorganic and organic molecules encased by a plasma membrane.
Contains organelles and enzymes.
|Cytoskeleton|| Plants, Animals|
Maintains cell shape and assists movement of cell parts.
|Endoplasmic Reticulum (rough)|| Plants, Animals|
Proteins are produced here and carried via vesicles to the Golgi apparatus.
|Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth)|| Plants, Animals|
Lipids are produced here.
Hairlike bristles that extend from surface and allow for adhesion to a surface.
|Flagellum|| Animals, Bacteria|
Rotating filament that pushes the cell forward.
Gel-like coating outside of cell wall.
|Golgi Apparatus|| Plants, Animals|
Sorts lipids and proteins, modifies them, and packages them into vesicles.
|Inclusion Bodies|| Bacteria|
Store nutrients/other substances for later use.
|Intermediate Filaments|| Plants, Animals|
Protein fibers of intermediate size that provide support and strength.
Colorless plastid that synthesizes and stores starches and oils.
Produced by the Golgi apparatus, vesicles that digest/break down worn out substances.
Membrane that folds into cytoplasm and increases surface area.
|Microtubles|| Plants, Animals|
Small cylinders of protein that allow cell to move and maintain its shape. Assembled by centrosome.
|Middle Lamella|| Plants|
Cements together the primary cell walls and adjacent plant cells.
|Mitochondria|| Plants, Animals|
Converts carbohydrates produced by chloroplasts to ATP (cellular respiration).
|Nuclear Envelope|| Plants, Animals|
Double membrane with nuclear pores than encloses nucleus. Outer layer.
|Nuclear Pores|| Plants, Animals|
Small holes on nuclear envelope. Permit passage of proteins into nucleus and ribosomal subunits and mRNA out of nucleus.
Contains DNA of bacteria in a single coiled chromosome.
|Nucleolus|| Animals, Plants|
Dark region of chromatin where rRNA is produced and where rRNA joins with proteins to form the subunits of ribosomes.
|Nucleus|| Animals, Plants|
Structure that houses DNA, and helps rib0somes carry out protein synthesis.
|Peroxisomes|| Animals, Plants|
Vesicles that enclose enzymes, helps break down hydrogen peroxide into water from breaking down fatty acids.
|Plasma Membrane|| Plants, Animals, Bacteria|
Outer surface that regulates entrance and exit of molecules.
Extra/accessory piece of DNA, ring. Used in production of new medicines.
Organelles that are bounded by a double bond and have internal membranes and vesicles. Storage and energy production.
|Polyribosomes|| Plants, Animals|
Ribosomes that occur in groups simultaneously synthesizing the same protein.
|Ribosomes|| Plants, Animals, Bacteria|
|Sex Pili|| Bacteria|
Elongated, hollow appendage used for DNA transfer to other bacteria cells.
|Vacuole|| Animals, Plants|
Membrane-bounded sac larger than a vesicle that stores substances.
|Vesicles|| Animals, Plants|
Membrane-bounded sac that stores substances. Transports substances as well.