← Stuntz: POB - Ch 3 [Sensation] Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Sensation The processs that occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are activated, allowing various stimuli to become NEURAL SIGNALS. Transduction Transforming physical energy into neural signals VIA sensory signals. Absolute Threshold Minimum stimulation necessary to detect Difference Threshold Smallest change in environment that can be detected 50% of the time. (The most variable threshold) Just Noticeable Difference Smallest amount of stimulus noticeable... JND Short for just noticeable difference! Subliminal _________ Perception: Stimuli below the level of consciousness acting on the unconscious mind and influencing behavior. Wavelength Measurement of a light wave from peak to peak. This determines the color of light. Red The longest wavelength is this color... Blue The shortest wavelength is this color... Amplitude Measurement of a light wave that determines brightness. This is the height of a wave. Bright The higher a wave is, the more ______ it is. Saturation Measures the purity of a wave. Habituation The tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information. Adaption Sensory _______: Our senses automatically adjust to the average stimulation in a particular unchanging setting. Microsaccades The constant movement of the eyes... Cornea Transparent protector of the eye. Bends light to focus it. Pupil Regulates the amount of light let in to the eye. Lens Part of eye that changes shape to determine sharpness. Accommodation Visual _________: change in the thickness of the lens. Farsightedness Visual condition where lens is LONGER and flatter than usual. Image focuses BEHIND the retina. Nearsightedness Visual condition where lens is SHORTER than usual. Image focuses in FRONT of retina. Flexibility You lose the __________ of your lens with aging. Retina The light-sensitive outer surface of the eye. Receives the stimuli that begins visual processing Receptor ________ Cells: Located at the back of the retina. Converts light into a neural signal. Two types. Rods Cones _______ & _______ : the two types of receptor cells in the retina. Rods Visual receptor cells that help with black/white, dim & peripheral vision. Located on the OUTER retina. Cones Visual receptor cells that help with color vision. Responding to light & fine detail. Located in the CENTER FORVEA. Bipolar ________ Cells: Connect the rods and cones to cells in the optic nerve. "On-off cells" Ganglion _______ Cells: Part of the optic nerve - a mass of nerve tissue and cells in the peripheral nercous system. Optic Nerve The bundle of axons that carries neural messages from each eye to the brain. Blind Spot Where the optic nerve leaves the eye and there are no receptor cells. Optic Chasm Point near the base of brain where some (not all) optic nerve fibers split and cross to other sides of the brain. Half of axons cross, and half stay! Right occipital ______ __________ Lobe controls the left visual field. Left occipital _____ _________ Lobe controls the right visual field. Both _____ visual fields use _____ eyes. Dark Adaption Recovery of the eye's sensitivity to cisual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights Light Adaption Recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness. Trichromatic Theory Theory of color vision. Proposes that there are 3 types of cones: red, blue and green. Afterimage The image that occurs when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the stimulus is removed. Opponent Process Afterimages supports which theory of color perception? Think about the flag exercise... Opponent Process Theory of color vision. Claims there are 4 primary colors: red, green, blue and yellow. Arranged in pairs! Red Green's partner in the opponent process. Blue Yellow's partner in the opponent process. One Number of colors that can be stimulated at one time in the opponent process. Trichromatic theory Which color theory claims that the COMBINATION of cones or RATE that cones fire determines the color you see? Wave The stimulus in the auditory system. Wave Pressed & expanded air make a... False Wave properties change. True or False! Sound Wave The change in pressure caused when molecules of air collide with each other and separate again. Amplitude Measures the loudness/height of wave in the auditory system. Determines VOLUME. Frequency Determines pitch & measures length of wave in the auditory system. Lower The longer the wave in the auditory system, the _______ the pitch will be. Timbre The richness of the tone of a sound wave. (Compare to saturation in the visual system) Hertz Cycles (waves) per second. Measures the frequency humans hear. Outer Ear The Pinna, Auditory (Ear) Canal, and Eardrum all make up the ________ ______. Pinna Structure in the outer ear that channels the sound wave to the auditory canal. AKA Earflap Auditory Canal The tunnel in the outer ear that runs to the eardrum. Eardrum The tight membrane in the outer eat that vibrates with waves. Middle Ear The hammer, anvil and canal make up the _______ _____. Ossicles Name for the 3 tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) in the middle ear. The vibration of these amplifies the eardrum's vibrations. Stirrup The ______ sits on the oval window and causes it to vibrate. Inner Ear The ________ ______ is made up of the oval window, cochlea, basilar membrane and organ of corti. Oval Window The membrane covering the opening of the inner ear. Sets up the chain reaction. Cochlea The snail shaped structure in the inner ear, filled with fluid. Attached to the oval window, fluid vibrates because of the oval window. Basilar Membrane The membrane running through the middle of the cochlea. Resting place of the organ of corti. Surrounded by fluid. Organ of Corti Rests on top of the basilar membrane. Hair Fibers The receptor cells in the organ of corti are _____ _______. Bend The hair fibers in the organ of corti _____ in response to vibrations. This causes the receptor cells to fire. Action Potential In the inner ear, when vibrations cause the hair fibers to bend, this is called the _______ _________. Auditory Nerve Where the neural impulse is sent after the action potential in the inner ear. Auditory Nerve The bundle of axons from hair cells in the inner ear. Temporal The auditory nerve connects to the ________ Lobe. Pitch Place theory and frequency theory are both theories of _____, bitch. Place Theory The theory of pitch founded by Von Hemholtz. Says that different pitches are experienced by stimulation of hair cells in different locations on the organ of corti. Higher In Place Theory: The closer the hairs bend to the oval window, the ______ the pitch. Frequency Theory Theory that the pitch is related to the speed of the vibrations in the basilar membrane. Faster In Frequency Theory: The ________ the vibrations are, the higher the pitch is. Volley Principle The concept that both place and frequency theory are correct up to some point. Place Theory Volley Principle: _______ ________ works above 1000 Hz. Frequency Theory Volley Principle: _______ ________ works below 100 Hz. Take turns Between 100 & 1000 Hz, groups of neurons _____ ______ sending the message to the brain in a volley patern. Conduction Deafness When sound vibrations can't be passed from eardrum to the cochlea. Cure: Hearing Aids Cause: punctured eardrum or inner ear damage Nerve Deafness When damage to the hair cell receptors or associated nerves results in deafness. Cure: Cochlear implant Cause: Disease, biological causes, aging Taste Buds Name of the taste receptor cells. Chemical Taste is a strictly ______ process because when molecules fit into receptors, the signal is fired and the brain interprets sensation. Gustation Fancy name for the sense of taste. Papillae The bumps on your tongue. Lined with taste buds! Sweet sour salty bitter The four basic tastes are: 2 We get new taste buds about every _ weeks. Flavor Smell + Taste = _______ Olfaction Fancy name for the ability to smell. Smell The sense of ______ is the most primitive... meaning it's first to develop. Limbic system There's a direct connection between olfaction and the ______ _________. This is why it's memory-provoking. Oderant Binding ______ ________ Protein: the protein in the nasal gland that binds with airborne molecules in the olfactory epithelium... this activates the sense of smell. Cilia The little hairs on the olfactory receptor cells. These send messages to the brain when stimulated by molecules of substances. Bulbs Olfactory _____: Areas of the brain above sinus cavity; receive information from the olfactory receptor cells. Thalamus Awareness of smell: Olfactory bulb > __________ > Temporal Lobe Olfactory Epithelium A sheet of receptor cells for smell that lines the roof of the nasal cavity. Somesthetic Means "the body senses"... defines touch because it is really several systems. Includes: - Skin senses - Kinesthetic senses - Vestibular sense Skin Somesthetic sense: Includes touch, pressure, temperature, pain. Kinesthetic Somesthetic sense: Location of body parts in relationship to ground and each other. Vestibular Somesthetic sense: Movement and body positions. Pacinian Corpsucles Sensory receptors just beneath the skin that sense pressure. Free nerve endings Sensory receptors beneath the uppermost skin layer. Sense temperature, pressure and pain. Visceral pain Pain in the organs Somatic pain Pain in the skin, muscles, tendons, joints. Act as a warning to the body. Gate Control Theory Theory that the spinal cord contains a fate that either blocks pain signals or lets them got to the brain. The gate represents balance in the neural activity of cells in the spinal cord. Substance P The stimulation of pain cells releases ______ __ which ACTIVATES NEURONS that open spinal gates which cause pain. Peri Acueductal Gray Brain modulatory system in the body. Substance P The neural-modulator to activate other neurons relating to pain. Goes up to the PAG in the brain. Endorphins The body's natural morphine.