The processs that occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are activated, allowing various stimuli to become NEURAL SIGNALS.
Transforming physical energy into neural signals VIA sensory signals.
Minimum stimulation necessary to detect
Smallest change in environment that can be detected 50% of the time. (The most variable threshold)
Just Noticeable Difference
Smallest amount of stimulus noticeable...
Short for just noticeable difference!
_________ Perception: Stimuli below the level of consciousness acting on the unconscious mind and influencing behavior.
Measurement of a light wave from peak to peak. This determines the color of light.
The longest wavelength is this color...
The shortest wavelength is this color...
Measurement of a light wave that determines brightness. This is the height of a wave.
The higher a wave is, the more ______ it is.
Measures the purity of a wave.
The tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information.
Sensory _______: Our senses automatically adjust to the average stimulation in a particular unchanging setting.
The constant movement of the eyes...
Transparent protector of the eye. Bends light to focus it.
Regulates the amount of light let in to the eye.
Part of eye that changes shape to determine sharpness.
Visual _________: change in the thickness of the lens.
Visual condition where lens is LONGER and flatter than usual. Image focuses BEHIND the retina.
Visual condition where lens is SHORTER than usual. Image focuses in FRONT of retina.
You lose the __________ of your lens with aging.
The light-sensitive outer surface of the eye. Receives the stimuli that begins visual processing
________ Cells: Located at the back of the retina. Converts light into a neural signal. Two types.
_______ & _______ : the two types of receptor cells in the retina.
Visual receptor cells that help with black/white, dim & peripheral vision. Located on the OUTER retina.
Visual receptor cells that help with color vision. Responding to light & fine detail. Located in the CENTER FORVEA.
________ Cells: Connect the rods and cones to cells in the optic nerve. "On-off cells"
_______ Cells: Part of the optic nerve - a mass of nerve tissue and cells in the peripheral nercous system.
The bundle of axons that carries neural messages from each eye to the brain.
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye and there are no receptor cells.
Point near the base of brain where some (not all) optic nerve fibers split and cross to other sides of the brain. Half of axons cross, and half stay!
______ __________ Lobe controls the left visual field.
_____ _________ Lobe controls the right visual field.
_____ visual fields use _____ eyes.
Recovery of the eye's sensitivity to cisual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights
Recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness.
Theory of color vision. Proposes that there are 3 types of cones: red, blue and green.
The image that occurs when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the stimulus is removed.
Afterimages supports which theory of color perception? Think about the flag exercise...
Theory of color vision. Claims there are 4 primary colors: red, green, blue and yellow. Arranged in pairs!
Green's partner in the opponent process.
Yellow's partner in the opponent process.
Number of colors that can be stimulated at one time in the opponent process.
Which color theory claims that the COMBINATION of cones or RATE that cones fire determines the color you see?
The stimulus in the auditory system.
Pressed & expanded air make a...
Wave properties change. True or False!
The change in pressure caused when molecules of air collide with each other and separate again.
Measures the loudness/height of wave in the auditory system. Determines VOLUME.
Determines pitch & measures length of wave in the auditory system.
The longer the wave in the auditory system, the _______ the pitch will be.
The richness of the tone of a sound wave. (Compare to saturation in the visual system)
Cycles (waves) per second. Measures the frequency humans hear.
The Pinna, Auditory (Ear) Canal, and Eardrum all make up the ________ ______.
Structure in the outer ear that channels the sound wave to the auditory canal. AKA Earflap
The tunnel in the outer ear that runs to the eardrum.
The tight membrane in the outer eat that vibrates with waves.
The hammer, anvil and canal make up the _______ _____.
Name for the 3 tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) in the middle ear. The vibration of these amplifies the eardrum's vibrations.
The ______ sits on the oval window and causes it to vibrate.
The ________ ______ is made up of the oval window, cochlea, basilar membrane and organ of corti.
The membrane covering the opening of the inner ear. Sets up the chain reaction.
The snail shaped structure in the inner ear, filled with fluid. Attached to the oval window, fluid vibrates because of the oval window.
The membrane running through the middle of the cochlea. Resting place of the organ of corti. Surrounded by fluid.
Organ of Corti
Rests on top of the basilar membrane.
The receptor cells in the organ of corti are _____ _______.
The hair fibers in the organ of corti _____ in response to vibrations. This causes the receptor cells to fire.
In the inner ear, when vibrations cause the hair fibers to bend, this is called the _______ _________.
Where the neural impulse is sent after the action potential in the inner ear.
The bundle of axons from hair cells in the inner ear.
The auditory nerve connects to the ________ Lobe.
Place theory and frequency theory are both theories of _____, bitch.
The theory of pitch founded by Von Hemholtz. Says that different pitches are experienced by stimulation of hair cells in different locations on the organ of corti.
In Place Theory:
The closer the hairs bend to the oval window, the ______ the pitch.
Theory that the pitch is related to the speed of the vibrations in the basilar membrane.
In Frequency Theory:
The ________ the vibrations are, the higher the pitch is.
The concept that both place and frequency theory are correct up to some point.
_______ ________ works above 1000 Hz.
_______ ________ works below 100 Hz.
Between 100 & 1000 Hz, groups of neurons _____ ______ sending the message to the brain in a volley patern.
When sound vibrations can't be passed from eardrum to the cochlea.
Cure: Hearing Aids
Cause: punctured eardrum or inner ear damage
When damage to the hair cell receptors or associated nerves results in deafness.
Cure: Cochlear implant
Cause: Disease, biological causes, aging
Name of the taste receptor cells.
Taste is a strictly ______ process because when molecules fit into receptors, the signal is fired and the brain interprets sensation.
Fancy name for the sense of taste.
The bumps on your tongue. Lined with taste buds!
Sweet sour salty bitter
The four basic tastes are:
We get new taste buds about every _ weeks.
Smell + Taste = _______
Fancy name for the ability to smell.
The sense of ______ is the most primitive... meaning it's first to develop.
There's a direct connection between olfaction and the ______ _________. This is why it's memory-provoking.
______ ________ Protein: the protein in the nasal gland that binds with airborne molecules in the olfactory epithelium... this activates the sense of smell.
The little hairs on the olfactory receptor cells. These send messages to the brain when stimulated by molecules of substances.
Olfactory _____: Areas of the brain above sinus cavity; receive information from the olfactory receptor cells.
Awareness of smell:
Olfactory bulb > __________ > Temporal Lobe
A sheet of receptor cells for smell that lines the roof of the nasal cavity.
Means "the body senses"... defines touch because it is really several systems.
- Skin senses
- Kinesthetic senses
- Vestibular sense
Includes touch, pressure, temperature, pain.
Location of body parts in relationship to ground and each other.
Movement and body positions.
Sensory receptors just beneath the skin that sense pressure.
Free nerve endings
Sensory receptors beneath the uppermost skin layer. Sense temperature, pressure and pain.
Pain in the organs
Pain in the skin, muscles, tendons, joints. Act as a warning to the body.
Gate Control Theory
Theory that the spinal cord contains a fate that either blocks pain signals or lets them got to the brain.
The gate represents balance in the neural activity of cells in the spinal cord.
The stimulation of pain cells releases ______ __ which ACTIVATES NEURONS that open spinal gates which cause pain.
Peri Acueductal Gray
Brain modulatory system in the body.
The neural-modulator to activate other neurons relating to pain. Goes up to the PAG in the brain.
The body's natural morphine.