The exchange, from hand-to-hand, of goods or services for equivalent value.
Complex, relatively dense settlements with a degree of organizational complexity well beyond that of a village or town. Ancient sities had several thousand inhabitants, the lower limit being between 2000 and 5000 people.
A system for exchanging goods and services between individuals and communities.
Term coined by Egyptologist Henry Breasted in the 1920s; a broad semicircle of land in southwestern Asia that encompasses the areas of the earliest civilizations.
Exchange of goods and commodities between two parties marked by the ceremonial giving of gifts, which signifies a special relationship between the individuals involved.
A state of interdependence between neighboring political units such as city-states that are equals.
Obligations between individuals or fellow kin members/groups that involve the expectation that the other party will respond when called upon.
The passing out of foodstuffs, goods, or commodities by a central authority such as a chief, thereby ensuring even distribution through a community or wider group. Often used to refer to the redistribution of exotic goods traded from afar.
A concept of V. Gordon Childe based on the assumption that metallurgy, specialists, and food surpluses caused a revolution in human life and urban civilization.