Electron Transport Chain
Found within the cytoplasmic membrane and is responsible for pushing out protons to make a gradient to MOVE things in and out of cell using the "proton motive force"
can be gated but not always. These are the PORES in a membrane that is very small allowing only specific ions to pass through.
Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM
The three-dimensional image of the bacterium was created by scanning a beam of electrons back and forth over its surface to enlarge the image 100,000 times.
usually used for storage and are created from the nutrients that a cell typically has an excess of - these areas do NOT stain in most cases.
When a molecule is moved through the cell membrane it is CHEMICALLY Modified.
a multicellular association - different activities can be carried out as a big group of organisms in an area for example the plaque on your teeth or the algae growing on a rock.
Thin sectioning, freeze fracturing or etching
necessary steps taken to prepare a a specimen for view with the use of a transmission electron microscope - TEM - because the electrons pass through the thin specimen to generate an image up to 100,000 times larger.
Energy consuming process by which molecules are carried across cell boundaries; can accumulate compounds against a concentration gradient
(in a cell or gland) the act or process of separating, elaborating, and releasing a substance that fulfills some function within the organism or undergoes excretion
movement towards or away from molecular OXYGEN
a kind of "resting cell", characteristic of a limited number of bacterial species; highly resistant to heat, radiation, and disinfectants
technique that divides bacteria into positive or negative on the basis of color; correlates well with cell wall structure when staining bacteria
organelle in EUKARYOTIC cells which the majority of ATP synthesis occurs
means of transporting a substance across a cell membrane by DIFFUSION; expenditure of energy is NOT required
macromolecule found only in bacteria that provides rigidity to the bacterial cell wall. The basic structure is an alternating series of two major subunits: NAM and NAG; chains of these subunits are cross linked by peptide chains
process by which certain cells INGEST particulate matter by surrounding and enveloping those materials, bringing them into the cell in a membrane bound vesicle
structure that facilitates the joining of amino acids during the process of translation; composed of protein of ribosomal RNA; structure intimately involved in protein synthesis
packaging organelle - place for packaging proteins and lipids before they proceed to their destination
an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells
When bacteria looks like a bunch of grapes. Describes the arrangement of bacteria. A cluster.
Describes the bacterial arrangement - looks like a chain, all linked together, in a line
the intercellular highway (transport system organelle inside cell)
cellular "skeleton" contained within the cytoplasm and is made of protein
hairlike appendages found on the surface of bacteria (but not cilia)
located on the "nose" of a microscope - used to magnify the object
another name for the "eyepiece" on a microscope, used to magnify the object
antibiotic found by Alexander Fleming around WWII
shaped like a crystal
short, hair-like organelles used for MOVEMENT, similar to flagella
gelatinous substance around a microbe; makes them slippery and hard to attack
the power to clearly separate things when looking at them through a microscope
most common microscopes that illuminate the field of view evenly
organelles that harvest energy from the SUN; use it for photosynthesis, found in plant cells
protein that transports certain compounds across the membrane or human or animal that "harbors a pathogen" ~ little helpers
movement of molecules or ions from region of HIGH to LOW concentration
movement because of CHEMICALS
movement because of magnetic energy
movement because of PHOTO/Light. Taxi = car = movement
describes the cytoplasmic membrane which has a variety of different protein in a double-fat layer; two layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane
provides buoyancy to aquatic cells, hallow structure made of protein in the form of a cylindrical tube closed by conical end caps; allows aquatic microbes to float near the surface and get light for energy
a long, whip-like appendage that help single celled organisms move; a long tail-like structure that helps a bacterium move about
chemically modifying a molecule as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane
found in EUKARYOTIC cells, spherical object, often found in middle of the cell, containing the DNA
transportation of a FLUID into a cell using local infoldings in the membrane, so small that a tiny vesicle forms around each droplet of liquid
segment of DNA NOT connected to the chromosomes and capable of replicating in bacteria and yeast
bacterial polysaccharides of glycerol and phosphate or ribotal phosphate linked via phosphodiester bonds