a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
The set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining some goal
Four perspectives psychologists have used in their attempt to understand motivated behaviors:
instinct theory (now replaced by the evolutionary perspective)
drive reduction theory
hierarchy of needs
focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors
Drive reduction theory
focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact
Arousal theory- focuses on finding the right level of stimulation
hierarchy of needs
describes how some of our needs take priority over others
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
Many psychologists view human behavior as directed both by:
physiological needs and by psychological wants
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
With few exceptions, when a physiological need increases, so does a
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
The physiological aim of drive reduction is
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek _____
optimum levels of arousal (curiosity, etc)
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
hierarchy of needs
Belongingness and love
People in a motivational "hot" state (from fatigue, hunger, or sexual arousal) become more aware of :
having had such feelings in the past and more sympathetic to how fatigue, hunger, or sexual arousal might drive others' behaviors.
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissue. When its level is low, we feel hunger
Increases in the hormone insulin (secreted by the pancreas) do what?
diminish blood glucose, partly by converting it into stored fat. Your brain automatically monitors your blood chemistry and internal state and will trigger hunger when blood glucose drops.
Signals from your stomach, intestines, and liver (indicating whether glucose is being deposited or withdrawn) all signal your brain
to motivate eating or not
The small but complex neural traffic intersection deep in the brain
wo distinct hypothalamic centers influence eating:
Activity along the sides of it (the lateral hypothalamus) brings on hunger. If electrically stimulated there, animals begin to eat.
When blood glucose drops, the lateral hypothalamus churns out the hunger-triggering hormone orexin.
Activity in the lower mid-hypothalamus (the ventromedial hypothalamus) depresses hunger.
Problems here lead to obesity and overeating
In addition to producing orexin, the hypothalamus monitors levels of the body's other appetite hormones:
a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach (stapled stomachs produce less)
a sister hormone to gherkin produced by the same gene that sends out a fullness signal to suppress hunger
a hormone secreted by the digestive tract
a protein that is secreted by fat cells and acts to diminish the rewarding pleasures of food
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
When feeling stressed, we crave starchy, carbohydrate-laden food because:
carbs boost the level of serotonin, which has calming effects.
Exposure to one set of novel foods increases ____
our willingness to try another
dislike of unfamiliar things
At tenth week of pregnancy, when food aversion peaks,_____
the embryo is most vulnerable to toxins.
the presence of others tends to amplify our natural behavioral tendencies
eat more if unit is bigger (France vs America)
what fraction are females?
what fraction display binge-purge depression cycle?
usually triggered by:
An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and become significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
¾ are females
About half display a binge-purge-depression cycle
Usually triggered by a weight loss diet
may be triggered by:
what group mostly has it?
also experience what?
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
May be triggered by a weight loss diet
Mostly women in late teens or twenties
Experience bouts of depression and anxiety, most severe during and following binges
Marked by weight fluctuations within or above normal ranges, making it easy to hide
significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
In their lifetimes, _% of people meet criteria for anorexia, _% bulimia, and _% binge-eating disorder
how can family environment provide ground for an eating disorder?
Mothers of girls with eating disorders focus on their own weight and the weight and appearance of their daughters
Families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidence of childhood obesity and negative self-evaluation
Families of anorexia patients tend to be competitive, high-achieving, and protective
psychological characteristics of people with anorexia: (4)
Have low self-evaluations
Set perfectionistic standards
Fret about falling short of expectations
Intensely concerned with how others perceive them
__% of Americans are overweight
Adult obesity in US has ____ over the past 40 years, reaching 34%
Child-teen obesity has _____
Significant obesity increases the risk of ______
diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, arthritis, and certain types of cancer, thus shortening life expectancy
weight bias is especially strong against:
A typical adult has ____(#) fat cells
30 to 40 billion
After first three weeks of a rigorous diet:
weight loss decreases
____correlation of body weights between identical twins reared apart
A variant of a gene called ___ nearly doubles the risk of becoming obese
With sleep deprivation, the levels of ____ (which reports body fat to the brain) fall and _____ (the stomach hormone that stimulates appetite) rise
A reasonable timeline for a ___% reduction in body weight is _ months
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
Sex hormones have two effects:
they direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics
and (especially in nonhuman animals) they activate sexual behavior.
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
Women's sexuality differs from that of other mammalian females in being more responsive to _____ level then to ____ levels.
Environmental factors account for almost __% of the individual variation in age of sexual initiation
Sexually active teens are usually _______ teens
Teenage girls are especially susceptible to STDs because they have ______
lower levels of protective antibodies
4 Predictors of sexual constraint:
Participation in service learning programs
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
gender difference in erotic plasticity
In men, a high sex drive is associated with an increased attraction to women. For women, it is for men and women.
brain size and sexual orientation correlation
Gay men and straight women have brain hemispheres of similar size, whereas in lesbian women and straight men, the right hemisphere is larger.
a cell cluster in the hypothalamus is bigger for ____
for heterosexual men and homosexual women
A critical period for the human brain's neural-hormonal control system may exist between_____ after conception
the middle of the second and fifth months
On several traits, gays and lesbians appear to fall ____ between straight females and males.
"my humanity is caught up, is inextricably bound up, in yours"
Job- unfulfilling but necessary way to make money
Career- an opportunity to advance from one position to a better position
Calling- fulfilling and socially useful activity (highest satisfaction)
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
the subjective sense of mutual obligations between workers and employees
Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
First step to a stronger organization is instituting a _____
strengths-based selection system
interviewers overrate their discernment
Four factors explain this gap between interviewers' intuition and the resulting reality:
Interviews disclose the interviewee's good intentions, which are less revealing then habitual behaviors. (good to see references)
Interviewers more often follow the successful careers of those they have hired than the successful careers of those they have rejected or lost track of.
Interviewers presume that people are what they seem to be in the interview situation
Interviewers' preconceptions and moods color how they perceive interviewees' responses
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rate on established scores
Structured interviews have ____ the predictive accuracy of unstructured interviews
360 degree feedback
rated by manager, yourself, other colleagues, and customers
3 Performance appraisal methods
Graphic rating scales (one trait)
Behavior rating scales (multiple traits, sort of)
when evaluation of one trait biases evaluations of other traits
Leniency or severity errors
too hard or too soft
when raters focus only on easily remembered recent behavior
a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard
____ has been a better predictor of success in college students than intelligence
passionate dedication to an ambitious long-term goal
the extent of workers' involvement, enthusiasm, and identification with their organizations
There is a_____ correlation between satisfied employees and company success
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals. Typically have a directive style
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support. Often have a democratic style. Good for morale
delegate authority and welcome the participation of team members
Great person theory of leadership-
all great leaders share certain traits. Overrated
motivates others to identify with and commit themselves to the group's mission (natural extraverts). More women than men
if given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision