European History AP - ch 21 Revolutions

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Vocab for class at Niceville HS. The list is chapter 21.

Jean le Rond D'Alembert

Coeditor of the Encyclopedie.

Assignats

Paper currenty, the French churcehs were used as collateral - the first Grench paper currency issued by the General Assembly.

Bastille

Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasancts for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.

Bourgeoisie

Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.

Revolutionary Calendar

Created by the National Convention, it was established after the French Revolution; day one was the first day of the French Republic.

Committee of Public Safety

Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effor. Instigated the Reign of Terror.

Conspiracy of Equals

Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf, an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction, communistic in nature.

Consulate

Form of government which followed the directory; established by Napoleon; ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.

National Convention

The third estate of the Estates General; broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.

Danton

Led the Mountains with Robespierre, also executed with Robespierre.

David

Napoleon's painter, painted the famous protrain of Napoleon's coronation.

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Written by the National Convention; declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.

Directory

Group fo five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.

Encyclopedie

Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment; explained many aspects of society.

Estates General

Not called since 1614; finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister; demanded control over the King's finances; he refused and dismissed them; sat as three segregated groups.

Gabelle

Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France; included in the Estate's list of grievances.

Girondists

One of the two halves of the divided National Convention.

Great Fear

Followed the storming of the Bastille; people were scared of outlaws and reprisals; fanned flames of rebellion.

Guillotine

Fast and relatively humane; used for mass executions.

Intendants

Created by Napoleon; kept watch over their own area of France; allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.

Levee en Masse

Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.

Louis XVI

King of France; executed for treason by the National Convention; absolute monarch; husband of Marie Antoinette

Marie Antoinette

Louis XVI's wife; executed.

Robespierre

Member of the National Assembly; led the Mountains; began and led the Committee of Public Safety; began the Reign of Terror.

Sans-culottes

Petty laborers and laboring poor; wore pants not knee breeches; became a major political group in revolutionary France.

Tennis Court Oaths

Taken by the National Assembly; stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.

First Estate

Clergy

Second Estate

Nobility

Third Estate

Artisans, etc. Everyone not in the First or Second Estate.

Thermidorean Reaction

A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.

Ancien Regime

The old order before the Revolution in France.

Regicide

The killing of the king.

Versailles

Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.

Mary Wollstonecraft

Wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Man" and "A Vindication of the Rights of Women".

Berlin Decree

1806-issued by Napoleon; instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.

Joseph Bonaparte

Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.

Confederation of the Rhine

League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league colapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.

Continental System

(1806-12) French economic plan to cripple Britain. Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign.

The Grand Army

Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian camapgn.

Louis XVIII

(1814-1824) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties.

Napoleonic Code

Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed as reestablishing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.

Peninsula War

France was forces to invade Spain after the failure of Joseph Bonaparte. Very costly for Napoleon. The Duke of Wellington helped the Spanish.

Plebiscite

A vote of the people.

Rosetta Stone

Founded by one of Napoleon's officers during the Egyptian campaign. Allowed people to decipher hieroglyphics.

Talleyrand

French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.

Saint Helena

South Atlantic island. Napoleon's final home after the battle of Waterloo.

Trafalgar

(October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed by invasion of Britain now became impossible.

Metternich

Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.

Castlereagh

British representative at Congress of Vienna.

The Hundred Days

The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.

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