political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
one of the three social classes in France before the French Revolution, First Estate=Roman Catholic Clergy, Second Estate= nobility, Third Estate= rest of the population
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates or social classes in France
French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 7 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
pledge made by the members of France's national Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up up a new constitution
wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastillein 1789
inherits debt from Louis the 14th, continued to tax peasants.
Roman Catholic Clergy(First Estate)
owned 10% of land and paid 2% of income and provide education and relief services for the poor.
owned 20% of land and paid almost no taxes, descendents of those who fought in middle ages. They and the clergy scorned Enlightenment ideas because they threatened their status and power.
Rest of the Population(Third Estate)
97% of population paid the most taxes and were commoners. Divided into three groups: bourgeoisie, workers, and peasants.
a middle class made up of bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, and skilled artisans. Often well educated and believed in Enlightenment ideas. They lacked privileges and had to pay high taxes,
tradespeople, apprentices, laborers, and domestic servants. They were paid low wages and were frequently out of work
80% of France's 26 million, largest group,
hail ruined harvest, slow down in manufacturing, high prices, and food shortages which led to homelessness and unemployment.
Factors or Events leading to the Revolution
-Members of the third estate wanted change and started using enlightenment ideas and quoting Voltaire and Rousseau.
-France experienced economic troubles due to rapidly growing trade, heavy taxation, and rulers excessive spending.
-Weak leadership from Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
king who spent extravagantly and enjoyed physical activities rather than government affairs. He wanted to improve the lives of people but could not make decisions.
French queen from Austria, extravagant spender, interfered with the government and gave poor advice, spent money on gambling,gowns, jewels, and gifts. "Madame Deficit"
an assembly of representatives from all three estates, each estate's delegates met in a separate hall to vote. Privileged estates could outvote third estate.
suggested by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, third estate delegates name themselves this and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French People. This started the end of an absolute monarchy and the beginning of a representative government. This vote was the first deliberate act of the revolution
Tennis Court Oath
Third estate was locked out of meeting room. They broke down the door of a Tennis Court and they pledged to stay until they thought of a new constitution. Nobles and members of the clergy followed the third estate and began favoring reforms. In response, King Louis XVI stationed his army around Versailles.
Storming of Bastille
on July 14 a mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed Bastille prison. They overwhelmed the guard and gained control of the building. This became a symbolic act of revolution to the French and it is celebrated as a national holiday.
panic that traveled all over the France. Peasants broke into nobles houses and destroyed legal papers requiring them to pay taxes.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
adopted by National Assembly stating that "men were born and remain free and equal in rights." These rights included "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression." It also guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion. The leaders adopted "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" as their slogan.
Olympe de Gouges
published a declaration of the rights of women but her ideas were rejected and she was declared and enemy of the Revolution and executed.
A state-controlled church
Many of National Assembly's reforms focused on the church. They took over Church lands and declared that church officials and priests should be paid as state officials. The Catholic Church lost both it's lands and its political independence. They used the proceeds from the sale of land to pay off France's debt. This alarmed many devout French Catholics. Even though the thought that the church and state should be together was and Enlightenment idea, many Catholics were offended.
National Assembly made a new constituition, Louis reluctantly approved. It made a limited constitutional monarchy. It also required a legislative body called the ___________ _________ They could create laws and approve or reject declarations of war. The king still held the executive power to enforce laws.
Factions split France
Food shortages and government debt still caused problems. The Legislative Assembly split into three groups.
sat on the left side of the hall and opposed the idea of a monarchy and wanted sweeping changes in the way the government was run.
sat in the center of the hall and wanted some changes in government but not as many as the radicals.
sat on the right side of the hall and wanted little government changes and upheld the idea of a limited monarchy.
nobles and others who had fled France to undo Revolution and restore Old Regime.
"those without knee breeches."shopkeepers and Parisian workers that wanted the Revolution to bring great changes to France.
Jacobin Club, radical political organization that wanted governmental changes.
A Jacobin, edited a newspaper, he edited a newspaper called L'Ami du Peuple (Friend of the People) Marat called for the death of all those who support the king. One of the first to suggest that the success of the Revolution lies in exterminating the opponents.
a lawyer, Jacobins most talented and passionate speakers. Known for his devotion to the rights of Paris' poor people. One of the leaders in the Mountain group. Helps the mountains convince the convention to execute Louis in 1793.
object that executed King Louis, machine that consisted of a metal blade that was lowered to cut off the victim's head. Invented by Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin.
moderates who wanted some change, split from Jacobins
Different types of Radicals, get their name because of the position inside the assembly that the sat in. The wanted to execute the king.
Committee of Public Safety
convention sets up committee to deal with threats within and outside France. Needs to deal with food shortage.
Jacobin, radical who worked on the committee and set food prices so poor could afford food. He soon became the leader of the committee and wanted to set up "republic of virtue." Wanted to wipe out any trace of France's past.
Reign of Terror
Primary goal is to protect the Revolution from its enemies. Execution by guillotine. It kills 40,000 people.
A Tale of Two Cities
supporter of the American Revolution and defended the French Revolution.
a reaction to the violence of the Reign of Terror in 1794 resulting in the execution of Robespierre and loosening of economic controls. Several members of the convention develop a conspiracy to overthrow Robespierre. Date was 9 Thermidor and there was a riot and people convinced others to executed Robespierre. His execution ended Reign of Terror.
After Reign of Terror
Moderates gain control of national convention. 2 house legislature is made and the executive house is called The Directory.Directory is made up of 5 men.
sudden overthrow of the government, often by force, led by Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon's comprehensive system of 300 sets laws.
(modern day Haiti) sugar producing country. They asked France to give them the same rights as the French people. Fearful that the people would not produce sugar they denied them their rights. Revolt occurs and they become the independent nation of haiti through victory of civil war.
Thomas Jefferson asked to buy the Louisiana Purchase and Napoleon agrees to receive money to pay of his European expeditions and punish England with the sale of the land.
Battle of Austerlitz
Napoleon defeats Austria and Russia who became allies to France.
Battle of Trafalgar
British navy defeats French navy off the southwest coast of Spain. 2 results: ensures the supremacy of the British Navy and destroys Napoleon's idea of invading Britain.
By 1812 Napoleon created a vast empire that included states such as Austria and Russia and included dependent states ruled by his relatives.
2 main reasons Bonaparte's Empire fell
Nationalism, Great Britain's survival
Napoleon's First Mistake
The Continental System: created for to stop British goods from reaching the European continent to be sold there.
a forcible closing of all ports.
Full Circle of the Revolution
Divorces Josephine for not bearing him a son and marries Marie Louise the niece of Marie Antoinette. The country is now under rule of a Hapsburg family again.
unique cultural identity of a people based on common language religion and national symbols.
Great Britain's Survival
After battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon gave up on the idea of invading Britain.
created to stop the British Goods from reaching the European continent. Napoleon set up blockades so that Britain could not trade with anyone in Europe. Britain's economy did not suffer because they still traded with American countries
Napoleon's Second Mistake
his attempt to force Spain and Portugal to obey the Continental System: Peninsular War
Napoleons Third Mistake
Invasion of Russia because they were selling grain to Britain. Meets Russians at Battle of Borodino
Russians burned grain fields and slaughtered livestock, to prevent the enemy from eating anything
Battle of Borodino
Napoleon defeats Russians and as the retreat the scorch the earth. Alexander sets Moscow on fire.
Napoleon tries to fight at Leipzig but allied forces have conspired against him. In March of 1814 allied forces came into Paris and forced him to surrender. They exiled him to Elba
time that Napoleon and allied forces fought at Waterloo, his last bid for power. After losing he is sent to St. Helena
Alexis de Toqueville
french writer who believes that Napoleon is a great man without virtue.
Congress of Vienna
series of meetings in VIenna on how to restore peace in Europe.
Concert of Europe
Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain and France. Wanted to prevent further revolutions and create peace. Maintained peace for about 40 years. Only conservatives were happy.
Kelmens Von Metternich
One of concert's leaders, Austrian, believed that the king should be respected and church should be honored.
Three goals of Concert
Surround France with Strong countries, Balance power of all countries in Europe, Restore royal families to thrones.
as many as possible of the rulers that Napoleon drove from their throne would be restored to power
Latin American trouble
Creoles seized control of the many colonies. King is restored and Peninsulares tried to regain control.