Ch. 15- Musculoskeletal system- Davi-Ellen Chabner

213 terms by sniderte

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Acetabulum

Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone) forming the hip joint. Common Name: Hip Socket

Calcaneus

Common Name: Heel

Carpals

Common Name: Wrist Bones

Clavicle

Common Name: Collar Bone

Coccyx

Common Name: Tailbone

Cranium

Common Name: Skull

Femur

Common Name: Thigh Bone

Fibula

Common Name: Smaller of the two lower leg bones

Humerus

Common Name: Upper arm bone

Ilium

Common Name: upper part of pelvic bone

Ischium

Common Name: posterior part of the pelvic bone

Malleolus

Common Name: Ankle

Mandible

Common Name: Lower jawbone

Maxilla

Common Name: Upper jawbone

Metacarpals

Common Name: Hand bones

Metatarsals

Common Name: Midfoot bones

Olecranon

Common Name: Elbow

Patella

Common Name: Kneecap

Phalanges

Common Name: Finger and toe bones

Pubis

Common Name: Anterior part of the pelvic bone

Radius

Common Name: Forearm bone- thumb side

scapula

Common Name: shoulder blade

sternum

Common Name: breastbone

tarsals

Common Name: hindfoot bones

Tibia

Common Name: shin bone- larger of the two lower leg bones

Ulna

Common Name: Forearm bone- little finger side

Vertebra

Common Name: Backbone/spine

Acromion

outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. It overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle

Articular Cartilage

Thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space

Bone

dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton. IE: long bones (femur), short bones (carpals), flat bones (scapula) and sesamoid bones (patella)

calcium

one of the mineral constituents of bone. Calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in bones

cancellous bone

spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of the bone

cartilage

flexible, rubbery connective tissue. It is found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces.

collagen

Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues

compact bone

hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones

condyle

knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint

cranial bones

skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal,, sphenoid, and temporal

diaphysis

shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone

disk (disc)

flat, round, pate-like structure. An intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae.

epiphyseal plate

cartilageinous area at the end of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton

facial bones

bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic

fissure

narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones

fontanelle

soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant

foramen

opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave. The foramen magnum is the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes

fossa

shallow cavity in a bone

haversian canals

minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone

malleolus

round process on both sides of the ankle joint. The lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia

manubrium

upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle

mastoid process

round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear

medullary cavity

central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone

metaphysis

flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft_ and the epiphyseal plate (in this term, meta-means between)

olecranon

large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow

osseous tissue

bone tissue

ossification

process of the bone formation

osteoblast

bone cell that helps form bony tissue

osteoclast

bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue

periosteum

membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue

phosphorus

mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium

pubic symphysis

area of confluence (coming together_ of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. They are joined (sym=together, -physis= to grow) by a fibrocartilaginous disk

red bone marrow

found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis

ribs

twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall. True ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8-10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12

sella turcica

depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located

sinus

hollow air cavity within a bone

styloid process

pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull

suture

immovable joint between bones, such as the skull (cranium)

temporomandibular joint

connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the the skull and manibular bone of the jaw.

trabeculae

supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy ) bone

trochanter

large process at the neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature

tubercle

rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons

tuberosity

rounded process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons

vertebra

individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal

xiphoid process

lower, narrow portion of the sternum

yellow bone marrow

fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones

calc/o, calci/o

calcium

kyph/o

humpback, hunchback (posterior curvature in the thoracic region)

lamin/o

lamina (part of the vertebral arch)

lord/o

curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)

lumb/o

loins, lower back

myel/o

bone marrow

orth/o

straight

oste/o

bone

scoli/o

crooked, bent (lateral curvature)

spondyl/o

vertebra IE: spndylosis- degeneration of the intervertebral disks in the cervical thoracic and lumbar regions. Signs and symptoms include pain and restriction of movement

vertebr/o

vertebra

-blast

embryonic or immature cell

-clast

to break

-listhesis

slipping

-malacia

softening IE: osteomalacia= a condition in which vitamin D deficiency leads to decalcification of bones; known as rickets in children

-physis

to grow IE: epiphysis

-porosis

pore, passage IE: osteoporosis- loss of bony tissue with decreased mass of bone

-tome

instrument to cut IE: osteotome- this surgical chisel is designed to cut bone

acetabul/o

acetabulum (hip socket) IE: acetabular

calcane/o

calcaneus (heel) IE: calcaneal

carp/o

carpals (wrist bones)

clavicul/o

clavicle (collar bone) IE: supraclavicular= means above collar bone

cost/o

ribs (true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs) IE: subcostal

crani/o

cranium (skull) IE: craniotomy, craniotome

femor/o

femur (thigh bone) IE: femoral

fibul/o

fibula (smaller lower leg bone) IE: fibular

humer/o

humerus (upper arm bone) IE: humeral

ili/o

ilium (upper part of pelvic bone)

ischi/o

ischium (posterior part of pelvic bone) IE: ischial

malleol/o

malleolus (process on each side of the ankle) IE: malleolar= the medial malleolus is at the distant end of the tibia, and the lateral malleolus is at the distal end of the fibula

mandibul/o

mandible (lower jawbone)

maxill/o

maxilla (upper jawbone)

metacarp/o

metacarpals (hand bone)

metatars/o

metatarsals (foot bones) IE: metatarsalgia

olecran/o

olecranon (elbow) olecranal

patell/o

patella (kneecap)

pelv/i

pelvis (hipbone)

perone/o

fibula

phalang/o

phalanges (finger and/or toe bones)

pub/o

pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)

radi/o

radius (forearm bone- thumbside) IE: radial

scapul/o

scapula (shoulder blade)

stern/o

sternum (breastbone)

tars/o

tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)

tibi/o

tibia (shin bone)

uln/o

ulna (forearm bone-little finger side

Ewing carcoma

Rare malignant tumor arising in bone; most often occurring in children

exostosis

Bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone (ex-means out, -ostosis means condition of bone)

fracture

traumatic breaking of a bone

Colles fracture

occurs near the wrist joint at the distal end of the radius

Comminuted fracture

bone is splintered or crushed into several pieces. A simple fracture means that a bone breaks in only one place and is therefore not comminuted

compression fracture

bone collapses or is compressed, as may happen to vertebrae in osteoporosis or with traumatic injury

greenstick fracture

bone is partially broken; it breaks on one surface and only bends on the other, as when a small tree branch breaks; occurs in children.

impacted fracture

one fragment is driven firmly into the other.

osteogenic sarcoma - (osteosarcoma)

common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts

osteomalacia

softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection

osteoporosis

decrease in bone density (mass); thinning an weakening of bone.

talipes

congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus) IE: the most common form is talipes equinovarus or clubfoot. The infant cannot stand with the sole of the foot flat on the ground. The defect can be corrected by applying orthopedic casts in the early months of infancy or, if that fails, by surgery.

articular cartilage

smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint

articulation

any type of joint

bursa

sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another

ligament

connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint

suture joint

immovable joint, such as between the bones of the skull

synovial cavity

space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane.

synovial fluid

viscous (sticky) fluid within the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white; this accounts for the origin of the term (syn-=like, ov/o=egg)

synovial joint

a freely movable joint

synovial membrane

tissue lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid

tendon

connective tissue that binds muscles to bones

ankyl/o

stiff

arthr/o

joint

articul/o

joint

burs/o

bursa

chondr/o

cartilage

ligament/o

ligament

rheumat/o

watery flow

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