AP Human Geography Key terms Chap.1-2

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Mr.Skeie's AP Human Geography Key Term quiz on chapters one and two

Human Geography

spatial analysis of human population, their cultures, activities, and lanscapes

Physical Geography

spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals and topography

Environmental Geography

the view that natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development

Patterns

a particular arrangement

Distribution

to disperse something in certain amounts

Spacial perspective

a way of looking at the world's and the earth's layout

Location

geographical position of a place or thing

Location Theory

an element of contemporary human geography that seeks answers to a wide range of questions-some theoretical, some practical.

Human-environment interactions

a spatial perspective that invites consideration of the relationship among phenomena in individual places-including between humans and the world

Region

an area on Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, funtional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon

Regional Science

an undertaking that involves the application of modern quantitative spatial analytic techniques to regional questions

Place

a location

Movement

refers to the mobility of people

Landscape

material character of a place

Maps

geological tool that displays latitude and longitude

Absolute Location

exact latitude and longitude

Relative Location

location relative to other human and physical features on the landscape

Geographic info. systems (GISs)

a new tool that allows geographers to combine layers of spatial data in a computerized environment, creating maps in which patterns and processes are superimposed

Remote Sensing

a geographic technique that monitors the Earth's surface from a distane using modern techonology

Diffusion

the movement of ideas, notions, and innovations

Area

spatial extent

Boundaries

limits

Formal Region

cultural criteria;the type of region marked

Functional Region

the product of interactions, of movement of various kinds

Perceptual Regions

region that only exists as a conceptualization or idea and not as a physically demarcated entity

Hierarchy

vertical order of regions

Mental Map

the map in your mind

Environmental Perception

the total impression of sights supplemented by sounds and smells

Acculturation

cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing

Assimilation

the process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speach particularities or manerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture

Civilization

an advanced state of a society possessing historical and cultural unity whose attributes include plant and animal domestication, metallurgy, occupational specialization, writing and urbanizm

Contagious diffusion

the distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person.

Cultural diffusion

the process of dissemination, the spread of an idea or innovation from its source area to other cultures

Cultural Landscape

the composite of artificial features.

Culture

way of life

Culture complex

a related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes,cooking,and eating utensils

Cultural hearth

place of origin of a major culture (source area, heartland)

Culture realm

a cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail

Culture region

a region within which common cultural characteristics prevail

Culture systems

grouping of certain complexes together (common traits)

Culture trait

a single attribute of culture

Diffusion

the spatial spreading or dissemination of a culture element

Environmental determinism

view that natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development

Expansion diffusion

the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area

Geographic realm

the basic spatial unit in our world regionalization scheme

Geographic region

an exact area according to maps

Hieracchical diffusion

a form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by trickling down from larger to smaller adoption units

Independent invention

a single peson or company creating an idea or object, alone.

Migrant diffusion

a particular form of relocation diffusion

Political ecology

an approach to studying nature-society relations that is concerned w/the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of the political and socioeconomical contexts in which theyr are suited

Possibilism

geographic viewpoint-a response to determinism- that holds that human decision making is the crucial factor in cultural development, not the environment

Relocation diffusion

sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate the new ones

Sequent occupance

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

Stimulus diffusion

a third form of expansion diffusion

Transculturation

cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact

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