Mandate of Heaven

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part of the china unit

mandate of heaven

Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.*

importance of the mandate of heaven

has been in place since the zhou until the dynasty system ended and it can be argued that it is still used today

why was it created

to justify the zhou as the main power of the region/ over the shang dynasty*

how does the monarch lose the mandate of heaven and what are the consequences of this loss?

if the leader becomes unvirtuaos and people in the monarchs realm are suffering or starving from certain events seen as a sign of ruler not being virtuous. being replaced and losing position of the emperor or being in charge

what evidence can you find here of the chinese cult of reverence for the ancestors

see highlighted passage of the text

what evidence can you find to support the conclusion that classical chinese political philosophy percieved the state as extended family

looked to marked sections of the text

what sort of harmony does the monarch maintain

has to make what the ruler wants and what the people want in harmony. you as a ruler have to make good choices to satisfy your subjects and then they will be happy and keep you in power.

would yi yin accep the notion that there can be a distinction between the ruler's private and public policies

no, look to marked parts of the passage

what does the theory of the mandate of heaven suggest about the nature of chinese society

they have a strict moral code of following laws and treating family and friends well/ morally. everything will have a good or bad result/effect. respect for your elders and ancestors is a very big part of how you conduct yourself in society, you should copy the good and moral things that they have done, you have to be morally good in public places and private places and respect family, this not only applies to emperors but everyone else also

american politicians often promise "innovative answers to the challenge of tommorow" what would yi tin think about such an approach to statecraft? what would yi yin think about modern politicians who attempt to appear youthful? what would he think about popular oppinion polls

he would not like the new approach to statecraft because he had been pushing the idea that a ruler should look to what ancestors have done and copy the good things and dont copy the bad so he wasnt pushing new or innovative ideas. he would not like the attempt to appear youthful because he emphasizes the importance of being wiser as on gets older so trying to be young would be the equivilant of trying to be stupid. also it would be considered bad because it would be morally wrong because it would be not being truthful to your age. he would like polls strictly as polls and not as elections because a ruler needs to be liked by the people. however, elections would be bad because power is supposed to be given by the gods and not the people.

four basic principles of the mandate of heaven

1. the right to rule is granted by heaven
2. there is only one heaven, so there can be only one ruler
3. the right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler
4. the right to rule is not limited to one dynasty. the right to rule is passed from one dynasty to the the next. powers that take over other powers can be granted this power to rule

positives and negatives of the mandate of heaven

1. gives the ruler prestige and religous importance
2. gives the ruler supreme power
3. it allows a new ruler to gain power quickly because everyone believes that he has the mandate of heaven
4. the rulers power must be kept in check by virtue
5. it justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful

the mandate of heaven led to the rise of ....

the shi people

shi

a small group of bureacrats that began to grown in number and expertise in the govt. they were a well educated and literate group of people. they would serve within the govt as scribes, administrators and advisors, worked in the govt but not part of the family (like yi yin). would become very influential

when the shang was defeated did the dynasty completely dissapear like in other civs?

no, it was just no longer a major dynasty with lots of power

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