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Abductor

Muscle that leads a limb away from the body.

Adductor

Muscle that leads a limb toward the body.

Adrenal glands

Endocrine glands above the kidney.

Anabolism

Process of building up proteins in cells.

Analysis

Separation of a substance into various parts.

Anoxia

Without oxygen.

Ante cibum (a.c.)

Before meals.

Anteflexion

Bending forward.

Antepartum

Before birth.

Antibiotic

Against life (germ life). Antibiotics are drugs given to combat bacteria.

Antibody

Proteins made by white blood cells to destroy antigens.

Antigen

Substance (protein) that stimulates the production of antibodies.

Antisepsis

Destruction of microorganisms to prevent infection.

Antitoxin

Substance produced against a toxin (poison); an antibody.

Apnea

Without breathing.

Autoimmune disease

Antibodies that are produced against an individual's own normal cells.

Benign

Non-cancerous.

Bifurcation

Branching or forking into two parts.

Bilateral

Pertaining to both or two sides.

Bradycardia

Slow heart beat, usually less than 60 beats per minute.

Congenital anomaly

Abnormality present at birth; birth defect.

Connective tissue

Tissue that supports and binds other tissues and parts. Examples are bones, cartilage, muscle, or fibrous tissues.

Contraindication

A factor that prohibits the administration of a drug or procedure in the care of a patient.

Contralateral

Affecting the opposite side of a part of the body.

Dehydration

Excessive loss of water.

Dialysis

Separation of nitrogenous wastes from the blood when the kidneys no longer function.

Diameter

Distance between opposite parts on the circumference of a structure.

Diarrhea

Diarrhea is the frequent passage of watery, loose stools.

Dysplasia

Condition of abnormal formation.

Dyspnea

Difficult breathing.

Ectopic pregnancy

A pregnancy that is outside the uterus.

Endocardium

The inner lining of the heart.

Endoscope

Instrument to visually examine within the body; bronchoscope.

Endotracheal

Pertaining to within the trachea.

Epithelium

Layer of cells covering the external surface of the body and lining the hollow tubes within the body.

Euphoria

Condition of exaggerated well-being ("good feeling").

Euthyroid

Normal thyroid function.

Exophthalmos

Eyeballs that protrude from their sockets; associated with hyperthyroidism.

Hemiglossectomy

Removal (resection) of half the tongue.

Hyperglycemia

Condition of excessive or high blood pressure; diabetes mellitus.

Hyperplasia

Condition of increased formation of cells.

Hypertrophy

Condition of increased development when individual cells increase in size.

Hypodermic injection

Placement of a needle below the skin.

Hypoglycemia

Condition of decreased sugar in the blood; low blood sugar.

Infracostal

Pertaining to below the ribs.

Insomniac

Pertaining to without sleep; an insomniac is a person who cannot sleep.

Intercostal

Pertaining to between the ribs.

Intravenous

Pertaining to within a vein.

Macrocephaly

Condition of a larger than normal head.

Malaise

General feeling of bodily discomfort.

Malignant

Cancerous; harmful.

Metacarpal bones

Hand bones.

Metamorphosis

Condition of change of shape or form.

Metastasis

Spread of a malignant tumor beyond its original location to a distant site.

Microscope

Instrument to view small projects.

Neonatal

Pertaining to a newborn infant.

Neoplasm

New growth.

Pancytopenia

Deficiency of all cells (blood cells).

Paralysis

Destruction of nerve tissue leading to loss of sensation or motion in a part of the body.

Parathyroid glands

Four endocrine glands on the posterior (dorsal) region of the thyroid gland.

Percutaneous

Pertaining to through the skin.

Periosteum

Membrane surrounding a bone.

Polymorphonuclear

Pertaining to a nucleus with several or many shapes. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are white blood cells with a multilobed nucleus.

Polyneuritis

Inflammation of many nerves.

Postmortem

After death.

Postpartum

After birth.

Precancerous

Pertaining to occurring before a malignant condition.

Prenatal

Pertaining to before birth.

Prodrome

Symptom that appears before the onset of a more serious an illness. An example of a prodrome is the fever that signals the onset of a viral illness.

Prolapse

Sliding forward or downward.

Pseudocyesis

False pregnancy.

Recombinant DNA

Insertion of a gene (region of DNA) from an organism into the DNA of another organism.

Relapse

Sliding or falling back; as in recurrence of symptoms or decline after apparent recovery.

Remission

Literally, to send back to good health; disappearance of disease symptoms.

Retroflexion

Bending backward.

Retroperitoneal

Pertaining to behind the peritoneum (membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity).

Subacute

Between acute (sharp, sudden, severe) and chronic (lasting over a long period of time with little change of symptoms).

Subcutaneous

Pertaining to under the skin.

Suprapubic

Pertaining to above the pelvic bone.

Symbiosis

Close association between organisms of different species or a state in which two people are emotionally dependent on each other.

Symmetry

Equality of parts, literally measured together.

Symphysis

Literally, to grow together.

Syndactyly

Fusion of fingers or toes; a congenital anomaly.

Syndrome

Group of symptoms that occur together indicating a particular condition or disorder.

Synthesis

Literally, to put (-thesis) together (syn-).

Tachypnea

Rapid breathing.

Transfusion

Literally, to pour (-fusion) across (trans-); transference of blood from person to another.

Transurethral

Pertaining to across or through the urethra.

Ultrasonography

The prefix ultra- means beyond or excessive; sonography is the process of recording sound waves. Ultrasonography is the use of high frequency sound waves that are beyond the range of normal hearing to produce a record or picture of an organ or tissue.

Unilateral

Pertaining to one side.

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