Medical Terminology - Chapter 5

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Absorption

Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine and into the bloodstream.

Achlorhydria

Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.

Amino acids

The chief constituents of proteins, these are acids that contribute to protein synthesis. Amino acids are formed when large proteins molecules are digested.

Amylase

The enzyme that digests or breaks down starch into simple substance.

Anastomosis

An opening between two tubular organs.

Anus

The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.

Appendectomy

Removal or excision of the appendix.

Appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix.

Appendix

Small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen.

Bile

Yellow or organ fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It travels from the gallbladder into the small intestines to help digest fats.

Biliary

Pertaining to bile or affecting the bile ducts. Bile ducts empty bile into the small intestine (duodenum).

Bilirubin

A yellow-orange pigment found in bile.

Bowel

Intestine. The large bowel is called the colon and the small bowel is the small intestine.

Buccal mucosa

Mucous membrane lining the cheek.

Canine teeth

Four point, dog-like (canine means dog) teeth. Each canine or cusped tooth is third from the midline of the jaw.

Cecal

Pertaining to the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine (colon).

Cecum

First part of the large intestine (colon).

Celiac

Pertaining to the abdomen.

Cheilitis

Inflammation of the hip.

Cholecystectomy

Excision or removal of the gallbladder.

Choledocholithiasis

Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct.

Choledochojejunostomy

Surgical anastomosis (create a new opening) between the common bile duct and the jejunum.

Choledochotomy

Incision of the common bile duct.

Cholelithiasis

Abnormal condition of forming gallstones.

Colon

Large intestine (bowel).

Colonic

Pertaining to the colon.

Colonoscopy

Visual endoscopic examination of the colon.

Colostomy

New opening of the colon through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.

Common bile duct

Tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver into the first part of the small intestine.

Defecation

Eliminating of wastes and undigested foods through the rectum.

Deglutition

Swallowing.

Dentibuccal

Pertaining to the cheek and teeth.

Dentin

The chief substance of teeth; surrounding the pulp and covered by enamel of the crown.

Digestion

The process of breaking down complex foods into simpler substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.

Duodenal

Pertaining to the duodenum.

Duodenum

The first part of the small intestine.

Dysentery

Painful inflammation of the intestines, usually the colon.

Elimination

Discharge from the body of indigestible materials or wastes.

Emulsification

Breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles.

Enamel

White, compact and hard substance covering the substance (dentin) of the crown of the tooth.

Endodontist

A dentist specializing in the inner parts of the tooth.

Enterocolitis

Inflammation of the small intestine and colon.

Enterocolostomy

New surgical connection between parts of the small intestine and colon; anastomosis.

Enzyme

Protein that speeds up the rate of the biochemical reaction. The suffix -ase means enzyme.

Esophageal

Pertaining to the esophagus.

Esophagus

Tube that carries food from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach.

Fatty acids

Substances that are produced when fats are digested. They combine with glycerol to form fat.

Facial

Pertaining to the face.

Feces

Solid wastes; stools.

Gallbladder

Small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored.

Gastrointestinal tract

The tubular system relating to the stomach and intestine beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus.

Gastrojejunostomy

New surgical opening between the stomach and the jejunum; an anastomosis. The procedure is part of a gastric bypass surgery.

Gastrostomy

New opening of the stomach through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.

Gingivitis

Inflammation of gums.

Gluconeogenesis

Process of producing new sugar from fats and proteins; occurs mainly in the liver.

Glucose

Simple sugar necessary as a source of energy for body cells.

Glycogen

Storage form of glucose (sugar); it produces glucose when it is broken down (glycogenolysis) in liver cells.

Glycogenolysis

Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar.

Hepatoma

Tumor (malignant) of liver cells; hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatomegaly

Enlargement of the liver.

Hydrochloric acid

Strong acid, present in a dilute form in the stomach; aids digestion.

Hyperbilirubinemia

High levels of bilirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream; jaundice.

Hyperglycemia

High levels of sugar in the bloodstream; diabetes mellitus.

Hypoglossal

Pertaining to under the tongue.

Ileitis

Inflammation of the ileum (third part of the small intestine).

Ileocecal sphincter

Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine).

Ileostomy

Surgical construction of an artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body through the abdominal wall.

Ileum

Third (and final) portion of the small intestine.

Incisor

One of the four front teeth on either jaw.

Insulin

Hormone secreted by specialized cells in the pancreas. Insulin facilitates transport of sugar from the blood into body cells.

Jejunum

Second part of the small intestine.

Labial

Pertaining to the lip.

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen and abdominal organs through small abdominal incisions.

Lipase

Enzyme (-ase) that digests fats; produced by cells in the pancreas and secreted into the duodenum.

Lithogenesis

Formation of stone (calculi).

Liver

Large, reddish-brown organ in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen. It secretes bile, forms blood proteins and metabolizes fats, proteins and sugars.

Lower esophageal sphincter

Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.

Mastication

Process of chewing.

Mesentery

Membrane that holds the intestine together; a fold of the peritoneum attaching the small intestine to the dorsal (back) body wall.

Molar teeth

Sixth, seventh and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch. The most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth.

Oral

Pertaining to the mouth.

Orthodontist

Dentist specializing in straightening teeth.

Palate

Roof of the mouth; hard palate is the front bony portion and the soft palate is the posterior fleshy part near the throat.

Palatopharyngoplasty

A procedure used to treat cases of snoring or sleep apnea caused by obstructions in the throat or nose.

Palatoplasty

Surgical repair of the palate.

Pancreas

Gland under and behind and the stomach; produces enzymes to digest foods and the hormone insulin to transport sugar to cells.

Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas.

Papillae

Small elevations on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds.

Parenteral

Pertaining to by some route other than through the gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection.

Parotid gland

Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.

Perianal

Pertaining to surrounding the anus.

Periodontist

Dentist specializing in treating the gums.

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum.

Peristalsis

Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures.

Pharyngeal

Pertaining to the pharynx or throat.

Pharynx

Throat; the common passageway for food from the mouth.

Portal vein

Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.

Postprandial

After meals.

Premolar teeth

Either of the two teeth on each side of each jaw, just behind the canine teeth and in front of the molars.

Proctologist

Specialist in the study of the anus and the rectum.

Protease

Enzyme that digests protein.

Pulp

Soft tissue with a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels.

Pyloric sphincter

Ring of muscles that surround the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.

Pyloroplasty

Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter.

Pylorus

Distal region of the stomach near the duodenum.

Rectocele

Hernia of the wall of the rectum.

Rectum

Final section of the colon.

Rugae

Folds or creases in the mucous membrane of the stomach or the hard palate of the mouth.

Saliva

Enzyme-containing digestive juice secreted by salivary glands.

Salivary glands

Three pairs of exocrine glands secreting saliva into the mouth; parotid glands, sublingual glands, and submandibular glands.

Sialadenitis

Inflammation of a salivary gland.

Sialolith

Salivary gland stone; lodged in a saliva gland or duct.

Sigmoid colon

Distal, lower end of the colon.

Sigmoidoscopy

Visual endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon.

Sphincter

Circular ring of muscle that surrounds an opening or orifice.

Steatorrhea

Discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion and malabsorption of fat.

Stomatitis

Inflammation of the mouth.

Sublingual

Pertaining to under the tongue.

Submandibular

Pertaining to under the lower jaw (mandible).

Triglycerides

Chief form of fat (lipids) in body cells; composed of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.

Uvula

Small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth.

Uvulectomy

Removal (excision) of the uvula.

Villi

Fingerlike, microscopic projections on the inner surface of the small intestine; sites of absorption of foods and fluids.

Achalasia

Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) to relax; dilation of the esophagus and loss of peristalsis occurs.

Anal fistula

Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.

Anorexia

Lack of appetite.

Aphthous stomatitis

Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers; canker sores.

Ascites

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

Borborygmus

Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by hyperactive movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract.

Cholelithiasis

Abnormal condition of gallstones.

Cirrhosis

Chronic, degenerative disease of the liver.

Colonic polyposis

Benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon.

Colorectal cancer

Adenocarcinoma of the colon or the rectum or both.

Constipation

Difficulty in passing (eliminating) feces (stool).

Crohn disease

Inflammatory bowel disease marked by diarrhea, pain, fever, weakness and weight loss.

Dental caries

Tooth decay.

Diarrhea

Frequent passage of loose, watery stools.

Diverticula

Small, pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of a tubular organ such as the colon.

Diverticulitis

Inflammation of diverticula; abdominal pain and rectal bleeding are symptoms.

Diverticulosis

Abnormal condition of diverticula without inflammation.

Dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing.

Eructation

Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.

Esophageal varices

Swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of the esophagus.

Etiology

Study of the cause of disease.

Flatus

Gas expelled through the anus.

Gastric carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the stomach; stomach cancer.

Gastroesophageal reflux

Backflow of solids and liquid against its normal direction of disease movement.

Hematochezia

Passage of bright red blood from the rectum.

Hemorrhoids

Swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region.

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