Medical Terminology - Chapter 12

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Adenoidectomy

Removal of the adenoids.

Adenoid hypertrophy

Increased development.

Adenoids

Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.

Alveolar

Pertaining to an alveolus.

Alveolus (plural alveoli)

An individualized section of an air sac in the lung.

Anosmia

Loss of the sense of smell.

Apex of the lung

Uppermost portion of the lung.

Apical

Pertaining to the tip of an organ.

Apnea

Stoppage of breathing.

Asphyxia

Deficient oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.

Atelectasis

Collapsed lung.

Base of the lung

The lower portion of the lung.

Bronchiectasis

Abnormal widening bronchial tubes.

Bronchiole

Small bronchial tube.

Bronchiolitis

Inflammation of a bronchiole.

Bronchodilator

An agent that opens bronchial tubes.

Bronchopleural

Pertaining to a bronchial tube and pleura.

Bronchospasm

Involuntary muscular contractions in bronchial tubes leading to narrowing of the bronchi.

Bronchus

Branch of the trachea that leads toward the air sacs of the lung.

Carbon dioxide

Gas produced in tissue cells when oxygen and food combine.

Immune reaction

The response of the immune system to foreign invasion.

Cilia

Thin hairs that line the nasal passageways and tubes of the respiratory tract.

Cyanosis

Abnormal condition of bluish coloration of the skin.

Diaphragm

Muscle that separates the chest and abdomen; aids breathing.

Dysphonia

Abnormal voice or sound produced by speaking.

Dyspnea

Abnormal breathing.

Empyema

Pus in the pleural space (cavity) surrounding the lungs.

Epiglottis

Thin piece of cartilage that covers the entrance to the voice box and windpipe when a person is swallowing.

Epiglottitis

Inflammation of the epiglottis.

Expectoration

Coughing up of mucus or sputum from the throat and respiratory tract.

Expiration

Process of breathing out or exhalation.

Glottis

Slit-like opening between the vocal folds of the larynx.

Hemoptysis

Spitting up blood from the respiratory tract.

Hemothorax

Blood in the chest (pleural cavity) surrounding the lungs.

Hilum of the lung

Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs.

Hilar

Pertaining to the hilum.

Hypercapnia

Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.

Hyperpnea

Increase in breathing rate.

Hypoxia

Deficiency of oxygen in tissues.

Inspiration

Act of breathing in or inhalation.

Laryngeal

Pertaining to the larynx or voice box.

Laryngospasm

Involuntary contraction of muscles surrounding the voice box.

Laryngitis

Inflammation of the larynx or voice box.

Larynx

Voice box, located at the upper region of the trachea.

Lobectomy

Removal of a lobe or section of an organ, such as the lung.

Mediastinoscopy

Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum.

Mediastinum

Region between the lungs in the chest cavity.

Nares

Passageways through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities.

Nasogastric intubation

Placement of a tube through the nose into the stomach.

Orthopnea

Breathing is only comfortable when a patient is in an upright position.

Oxygen

Gas inhaled and entering the bloodstream through the lungs.

Palatine tonsil

One of a pair of collections of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx at the back of the mouth near the soft palate.

Paranasal sinus

One of a pair of air cavities in the bones near the nose.

Parietal pleura

Outer layer of the pleura lying closest to the chest wall.

Pharyngeal

Pertaining to the throat or pharynx.

Pharynx

Throat, nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.

Phrenic nerve

Carries impulses to the diaphragm from the brain.

Pleura

Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung.

Pleural cavity

Space between the pleura surrounding each lung.

Pneumoconiosis

Abnormal condition of collection of dust particles in the lungs.

Pneumonectomy

Removal of a lung.

Pneumothorax

Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the pleura and surrounding the lungs.

Pulmonary

Pertaining to the lungs.

Pulmonary parenchyma

Essential parts of the lungs responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli.

Pyothorax

Pus collection in the pleural cavity.

Respiration

Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) at the lung capillaries (external respiration) and at the tissue capillaries (internal respiration).

Rhinoplasty

Surgical repair of the nose.

Rhinorrhea

Discharge of mucus from the nose.

Sinusitis

Inflammation of paranasal sinuses.

Spirometer

An instrument to measure breathing.

Tachypnea

Rapid breathing.

Thoracic

Pertaining to the chest.

Thoracoscopy

Endoscopic visualization of the chest.

Thoracotomy

Incision of the chest.

Tonsillectomy

Removal of tonsils.

Trachea

Windpipe.

Tracheal stenosis

Narrowing of the trachea.

Tracheotomy

Incision of the trachea.

Visceral pleura

Innermost membrane of the pleura, lying closest to the lung tissue itself.

Anthracosis

Abnormal condition of cola dust in the lungs; black lung disease.

Asbestosis

Abnormal condition of asbestos fiber particles in the lungs.

Asthma

Chronic inflammation disorder, characterized by airway obstruction and caused by bronchial edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production.

Atelectasis

Collapsed lung.

Auscultation

Listening for sounds in the chest and abdomen using a stethoscope.

Bacilli

Rod-shaped bacteria that are the cause of tuberculosis.

Bronchioalveolar lavage

Irrigation or washing of a bronchus by injecting fluid through a bronchoscope and then reviewing it to analyze the contents.

Bronchiectasis

Chronic dilate of bronchial tubes caused by infection of the lower lobes of the lungs.

Bronchoscopy

Visual examination of the bronchial tubes using an endoscope or bronchoscope.

Chest tomograms

Series of x-ray images that show an organ in depth.

Chronic bronchitis

Inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long period of time.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Lung and bronchial tube conditions that block and damage airways and persist over a long period of time. Examples are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Computed tomography of the chest

Computer generated x-ray images showing thoracic structures in cross-section.

Cor pulmonale

Enlargement of the right side of the heart due to lung disease.

Croup

Acute viral infection in children and infants marked by obstruction of the larynx and barking cough.

Cystic fibrosis

Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in mucous secretions that do drain normally.

Diphtheria

Acute infection of the throat caused by diphtheria bacteria; characterized by formation of a thick membrane that destructs the throat and breathing.

Emphysema

Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.

Endotracheal intubation

Tube is placed through the mouth and throat into the trachea to establish an airway.

Epistaxis

Nosebleed.

Exudate

Fluid cells or other substances that slowly leave cells or capillaries through pores or breaks in cell membranes.

Hydrothorax

Water or fluid that accumulates in the pleural space surrounding the lungs.

Laryngoscopy

Endoscopic visual examination of the larynx.

Lung biopsy

Surgical removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination of cells.

Lung cancer

Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchial tubes.

Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest

Magnetic waves create images of the chest in all three planes of the body.

Mediastinoscopy

Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum.

Mesothelioma

Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura and associated with asbestos exposure.

Obstructive lung disease

Narrowed airways result in resistance to airflow during breathing. Examples are asthma, bronchiectasis, COPD, and cystic fibrosis.

Palliative

Relieving, but not curing an illness.

Paroxysmal

Pertaining to a sudden occurrence.

Percussion

Tapping on the surface to determine the underlying structure.

Pertussis

Whooping cough; bacterial infection of the throat, larynx and trachea.

Pleural effusion

Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.

Pleural rub

Scratchy sound produced by inflamed or irritated pleural surfaces rubbing against each other.

Pleurisy

Inflammation of the pleura; pleuritis.

Pleurodynia

Pain that is caused by inflammation of the pleural cavity or intercostal muscles.

Pneumonia

Acute inflammation and infection of the alveoli, which fill with pus, and produces inflammation.

Pneumothorax

Presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity causing the lung to collapse.

Positron emission tomography of the lung

Radioactive substance is injected into a patient and the images reveal the metabolic activity in the lung for diagnosis of malignant tumors.

Pulmonary abscess

Collection of pus in the lungs.

Pulmonary angiography

X-ray recording of lung blood vessels after injecting contrast into the pulmonary artery.

Pulmonary edema

Collection fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles of the lung.

Pulmonary embolism

Clot or material from a distant vein that blocks a blood vessel in the lung.

Pulmonary fibrosis

Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lung.

Pulmonary function tests

Tests that measure the ventilation (breathing) mechanics of the lung.

Pulmonary infarction

Lung tissue that is damaged or dies as a result of blood vessel occlusion and tissue ischemia.

Purulent

Pus-filled.

Rale

Abnormal, fine, crackling sound heard on auscultation when there is fluid in the alveoli.

Restrictive lung disease

A condition in which lung expansion is limited by diseases that affect the chest wall pleural or lung tissue itself.

Rhonchus (rhonchi)

Loud, rumbling sound heard on auscultation of bronchi that are obstructed by sputum.

Sarcoidosis

Chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.

Silicosis

Silica glass dust collects in the lungs; a type of pneumonia.

Sputum

Material expelled from the chest by coughing or by clearing the throat; phlegm.

Sputum culture

Sputum is collected and placed on a growth medium to analyze the type of microorganisms that may be prevented.

Stridor

Strained, high-pitched noisy breathing associated with obstruction of the larynx or trachea.

Thoracentesis

Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space.

Thoracoscopy

Visual examination of the chest using small incision and an endoscope.

Tracheostomy

New opening of the trachea to the outside of the body.

Tuberculin test

Determines past or present exposure to tuberculosis based on a positive skin test.

Tuberculosis

Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lungs are usually involved but other organs may be affected.

Tube thoracostomy

Chest tube is passed through an opening in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion.

Ventilation-perfusion scan

A detection device records radioactivity after an injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas.

Wheeze

Continuous high-pitched whistling sound heard when air is forced through a narrow space during inspiration or expiration.

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