Medical Terminology - Chapter 14

77 terms by tab11576 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Acquired immunity

Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Depression or suppression of the immune system after exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems.

Adenoids

Masses of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.

Allergen

Substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity in a body; an antigen.

Allergy

Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen (allergen).

Anaphylaxis

Exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substance.

Antibody

Protein produced in the bloodstream by lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen, such as a bacterium or toxin. Antibodies destroy or weaken antigens.

Atopy

Intense allergic reaction (such as asthma) influenced by hereditary tendency or predisposition.

Autoimmune disease

Chronic disabling disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies to normal body tissues; multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus are examples.

Axillary node

Lymph node under the arm.

B cell

A lymphocyte that originates in bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.

CD4+ cells

Helper T cells that carry the CD4+ protein antigen on their surface.

Cell-mediated immunity

Type of immune response that involves T cell lymphocytes. These lymphocytes act directly on antigens to destroy them.

Cervical node

Lymph node in the neck.

Cytokine

Protein that aids cells to destroy antigens. Examples are interleukins and interferons.

Cytotoxic T cell

T cell lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells; T8 cell.

Dendritic cell

A type of macrophage that captures antigens and presents them to T cells for destruction.

ELISA

Test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in blood. This is a screening test for AIDS.

Helper T cell

Lymphocyte that aids a B cell lymphocyte in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production.

Hodgkin disease

Malignant tumor of lymphatic tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Virus (retrovirus) that causes AIDS.

Humoral immunity

Type of immune response in which a B cell lymphocyte transforms into a plasma cell and secretes antibodies.

Hypersensitivity

Abnormal condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the immune system to an antigen.

Hypersplenism

Syndrome of spleen enlargement (splenomegaly) and destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis).

Immune response

The body's capability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that can damage tissue and organs.

Immunoelectrophoresis

Laboratory test that separates immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE, and IgA).

Immunoglobulins

Antibodies (proteins) secreted by B-cell lymphocytes (plasma cells).

Immunosuppression

Blocking or turning off the normal immune response.

Immunotherapy

Use of immunologic techniques to treat disease.

Inguinal node

Lymph node in the groin region.

Interferons

Anti-viral proteins secreted by lymphocytes.

Interleukins

Proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the immune system including B & T cell lymphocytes.

Interstitial fluid

Fluid that fills the spaces in between cells.

Kaposi sarcoma

Malignant tumor of skin and connective tissue; associated with AIDS.

Lymph

Fluid that circulates within lymph vessels and lymph nodes.

Lymphadenitis

Inflammation of lymph nodes.

Lymphadenopathy

Disease of lymph nodes.

Lymph capillaries

Tiny lymph vessels that carry lymph through the body.

Lymphedema

Abnormal collection of fluid in tissue spaces caused by obstruction of lymph vessels and backflow of lymph.

Lymph node

Mass of stationary lymphatic tissue along the path of lymph vessels.

Lymphocytes

White blood cells that develop primarily in lymph nodes and the spleen and fight against foreign organisms.

Lymphocytosis

Increase in numbers of lymphocytes in the bloodstream.

Lymphocytopenia

Deficiency of lymphocytes.

Lymphoid organs

Organs containing and derived from lymphatic tissue; spleen, thymus gland and lymph nodes.

Lymphoma

Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue.

Lymphopoiesis

Formation of lymphocytes.

Lymph vessels

Carry lymph throughout the body.

Macrophage

Large phagocyte found in lymphatic tissues and connective tissues; derived from a monocyte.

Mediastinal node

Lymph node in the mediastinum (central area between the lungs in the chest).

Monoclonal antibody

Antibody produced in a laboratory to attack specific antigens.

Multiple myeloma

Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells (plasma cells that produce immunoglobulins).

Natural immunity

Person's own genetic ability to fight off disease. It includes phagocytes and lymphocytes such as natural killer cells.

Natural killer cell

Lymphocyte that recognizes and destroys foreign cells by releasing proteins called cytokines.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Malignant tumor of cells (lymphocytes and large macrophages called histocytes) found in lymph nodes and spleen

Opportunistic infections

Infectious diseases associated with AIDS; toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, herpes simplex, and Pneumocystosis carinii pneumonia (PCP).

Plasma cell

B cell lymphocyte that secretes antibodies.

Protease inhibitor (PI)

Drug used to treat AIDS by blocking production of protease, an enzyme that helps HIV to reproduce.

Retrovirus

Virus that makes copies of itself using the host cell's DNA, a process that is the reverse of the normal replication mechanism in cells. HIV is a retrovirus.

Reverse transcriptase inhibitor

Drug used to treat AIDS by blocking an enzyme (reverse transcriptor), needed to make copies of HIV.

Right lymphatic duct

Receives lymph from the right side of the body and empties lymph into a vein in the neck.

Spleen

Organ adjacent to the stomach (in the LUQ) that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells.

Splenectomy

Removal of the spleen.

Splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen.

Suppressor T cell

Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T cell lymphocytes.

T cell

Lymphocyte originating in the thymus gland and destroys antigens by direct action or production of cytokines such as interferons and interleukins.

Thoracic duct

Large lymphatic vessel in the upper chest.

Thymectomy

Removal of the thymus gland.

Thymoma

Malignant tumor of the thymus gland.

Thymus gland

Lymphoid organ in the mediastinum that produces T cell lymphocytes and aids in the immune response.

Tonsils

Masses of lymphatic tissue on either side of the back of the mouth.

Toxic

Pertaining to a toxin, which is a poison or harmful substance.

Toxins

Poison or harmful substance.

Vaccination

Introduction of a vaccine (containing dead or weakened antigen) to produce immunity. It is a type of acquired immunity.

Vaccine

Weakened or dead antigens to induce antibody production.

Viral load test

Measures the amount of HIV in the blood stream.

Wasting syndrome

Weight loss and decrease in muscle strength, appetite, and mental activity that occurs with AIDS.

Western blot

Specific test to detect presence of anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set