Medical Terminology - Chapter 15

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Acetabulum

Rounded depression or socket in the pelvis, which joins the femur forming the hip joint.

Acromion

Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder.

Articular cartilage

Thin layer of cartilage surrounding the bones in the joint space.

Calcaneal

Pertaining to the calcaneus (heel bone).

Calcaneus

Heel bone.

Calcium

One of the mineral constituents of bone.

Cancellous bone

Spongy, porous bone tissue in the inner part of a bone.

Carpals

Bones of the wrist.

Cartilage

Flexible, connective tissue that is firmer than muscle, yet softer than bone.

Cervical vertebrae

Seven backbones in the neck.

Chondrocostal

Pertaining to cartilage than is attached to the ribs.

Clavicle

Collar bone.

Coccyx

Tailbone.

Collagen

Dense connective tissue strands of protein found in bone.

Colles fracture

Broken bone occurring in the wrist at the lower end of the radius.

Comminuted fracture

Broken bone that is splintered or crushed.

Compact bone

Hard, dense bone tissue.

Condyle

Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint.

Cranial bones

Bones of the skull; ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bones.

Craniotome

Instrument to cut the skull (cranium).

Craniotomy

Incision of the skull.

Crepitus

Crackling sound produced when ends of bone rub against each other or against roughened cartilage.

Decalcification

Loss or removal of calcium from bones or teeth.

Diaphysis

Shaft or mid-portion of a long bone.

Epiphyseal plate

Layer of cartilage at the ends of long bones where lengthwise bone growth takes place.

Epiphysis

Each end of a long bone.

Ethmoid bone

Thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eye.

Ewing sarcoma

Malignant bone tumor occurring in children.

Exostosis

Bony growth arising from the surface of a bone.

Facial bones

Bones of the face; lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic bones.

Femoral

Pertaining to the femur.

Femur

Thigh bone.

Fibula

Smaller of the two lower leg bones.

Fibular

Pertaining to the fibula.

Fissure

Narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones.

Fontanelle

Soft spot between skull bones of an infant.

Foramen

Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.

Fossa

Shallow cavity in a bone.

Frontal bone

Skull bone that forms the forehead and bony sockets that contain the eyes.

Haversian canals

Minute spaces for blood vessels in compact bone.

Humeral

Pertaining to the humerus (upper arm bone).

Humerus

Upper arm bone.

Hypercalcemia

High levels of calcium in the blood.

Iliac

Pertaining to the ilium (upper and largest portion of the pelvic bone).

Ilium

Upper and largest portion of the pelvic (hip) bone.

Impacted fracture

Broken bone in which one fragment is driven firmly into the other fragment.

Ischial

Pertaining to the ischium (posterior portion of the pelvic bone).

Ischium

Posterior (back) portion of the pelvic (hip) bone.

Kyphosis

Abnormal condition of outward curvature (convexity) of the thoracic spine.

Lacrimal bones

Two small facial bones that contain tear glands and canals for the passage of tear ducts.

Lamina

One of two posterior (back) arches of a vertebra.

Laminectomy

Surgical removal of the posterior portion of a vertebra to relieve pressure on a spinal nerve or spinal cord from a displaced intervertebral disk.

Lordosis

Forward curvature of the lumbar spinal column. In its extreme form it is known as "swayback."

Lumbar vertebrae

Backbones (5) in the region of the waist (middle section below the chest).

Lumbosacral

Pertaining to the lower bones of the back (lumbar and sacral regions).

Malleolar

Pertaining to a malleolus.

Malleolus

Either of two bony enlargements (processes) on each side of an ankle.

Mandible

Lower jaw bone.

Mandibular

Pertaining to the lower jaw bone.

Manubrium

Upper portion of the sternum.

Mastoid process

Round projection (process) on the temporal bone behind the ear.

Medullary cavity

Inner section of a bone containing soft bone marrow tissue.

Metacarpals

Hand bones.

Metacarpectomy

Surgical excision of hand bones

Metaphysis

Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) of the bone and the epiphyseal plate at the end of the bone.

Metatarsalgia

Foot pain.

Metatarsals

Foot bones.

Myelopoiesis

Formation of bone marrow.

Nasal bone

One of two facial bones that form the nose.

Occipital bone

Forms the posterior portion of the skull.

Olecranal

Pertaining to the elbow (olecranon).

Olecranon

Large process on the end (proximal) of the ulna; elbow.

Orthopedics

Surgical specialty devoted to straightening, correcting and treating deformities and diseases in bones.

Osseous tissue

Bone tissue.

Ossification

Process of forming bone.

Osteitis

Inflammation of bone.

Osteoblast

Bone cell responsible for forming bony tissue.

Osteoclast

Large bone cell that functions to absorb and remove unwanted bony tissue during growth and healing of fractures.

Osteodystrophy

Abnormal development of bone.

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Congenital bone disease in which bones are unusually brittle and fragile.

Osteogenic sarcoma

Malignant (cancerous) tumor of bone tissue.

Osteomalacia

Softening of bones with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in bone; rickets.

Osteomyelitis

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow.

Osteopenia

Deficiency of bone tissue caused by destruction of bone tissue that exceeds the rate of bone matrix growth.

Osteoporosis

Abnormal condition of increased loss of bony tissue. Bones become thin, weak, brittle, and break easily.

Osteotome

Instrument to cut bone.

Parietal bones

Two bones on either side of the skull.

Patella

Kneecap.

Pelvimetry

Measurement of the hip bone to determine if delivery of the infant through the vagina is possible.

Periosteum

Membrane surrounding bones.

Peroneal

Pertaining to the fibula.

Phalangeal

Pertaining to finger and toe bones.

Phalanges

Finger and toe bones.

Phosphorus

Mineral found in bones and teeth.

Pubic symphysis

Area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the midline of the pelvic bone. It is a slightly movable joint separated by a disk of fibrocartilage.

Pubis

One of two bones forming the front portion of the hipbone.

Radial

Pertaining to the radius, a bone in the lower arm (thumb side of the wrist).

Radius

One of two bones in the lower arm (connecting to the wrist on the thumb side).

Red bone marrow

Soft bone tissue in spongy, cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis.

Reduction

Reconnection of a bone to its normal position after a fracture.

Ribs

Twelve pairs of curved, elongated bones in the chest.

Sacral vertebrae

Bones of the sacrum (lower back below the lumbar region).

Scapula

Shoulder blade.

Scapular

Pertaining to the shoulder blade.

Scoliosis

Abnormal condition of lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine.

Sella turcica

Depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull; location of the pituitary gland.

Sinus

Hollow, air cavity within a bone.

Sphenoid bone

Bat-shaped bone that forms part of the base of the skull.

Spinal stenosis

Narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine.

Spondylolisthesis

Forward slipping or subluxation of one vertebra over another.

Spondylosis

Abnormal condition of the spine (vertebral column) characterized by stiffness and fixation of vertebral joints.

Sternum

Breast bone.

Styloid process

Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull.

Subcostal

Pertaining to under the ribs.

Subpatellar

Pertaining to under the patella (knee cap).

Supraclavicular

Pertaining to above the clavicle (collar bone).

Suture

Immovable, fibrous joint, as between bones of the skull.

Talipes

Club foot; foot is fixed in an abnormal position due to a congenital deformity of the ankle and foot.

Tarsals

Ankle bones.

Tarsectomy

Removal of an anklebone.

Temporal bones

Two bones on each side of the skull near the ear.

Temporomandibular joint

Connection between the temporal bone of the skull and the mandibular bone of the jaw (lower jaw bone).

Thoracic vertebrae

Twelve backbones in the region of the chest.

Tibia

Larger of the two lower leg bones.

Tibial

Pertaining to the larger of the two lower leg bones.

Trabeculae

Supporting bundles of fibers in cancellous, spongy (soft) bone.

Trochanter

Large process at the neck of the femur (thigh bone).

Tubercle

Small, rounded process on a bone.

Tuberosity

Large, rounded process on a bone.

Ulna

One of two bones in the lower arm; connects to the wrist on the little finger side.

Ulnar

Pertaining to the ulna.

Vertebra (pl. vertebrae)

A backbone.

Vomer

Thin plate of bone that forms part of the nasal septum, which is the wall separating the nostrils.

Xiphoid process

Lower, narrow portion of the sternum (breastbone).

Yellow bone matter

Fatty tissue in the shaft of long bones.

Zygomatic bones

Cheekbones of the face.

Abduction

Muscle movement away from the midline of the body.

Achondroplasia

Inherited disorder in which the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size; achondroplastic dwarf.

Adduction

Muscle movement toward the midline of the body.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Damage to nerves on the lateral (side) columns of the spinal cord and lower region of the brain, leading to progressive muscular paralysis.

Ankylosing spondylitis

Chronic inflammatory joint disease involving the backbones; marked by stiffness and eventual fusion (ankylosis) of involved joints.

Ankylosis

Immobility (fusion) of a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.

Arthrodesis

Surgical fusion of a joint to eliminate movement.

Arthrotomy

Incision of a joint.

Articular cartilage

Cartilage surrounding bones in a joint.

Articulation

A connection between bones; joint.

Atrophy

Wasting away (lack of development) of a normally developed organ or tissue (especially muscle).

Bunion

Abnormal swelling of the joint between the big toe and a bone of the foot.

Bursa (pl. bursae)

Sac of fluid between tendons and bones near a joint.

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