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Accommodation

Normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near.

Amblyopia

Reduced vision (poor eyesight).

Anisocoria

Inequality in the size of pupils.

Anterior chamber

Space behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris; contains aqueous humor.

Aphakia

Absence of the lens of the eye.

Aqueous humor

Fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber of the eye.

Astigmatism

Abnormal curvature of the eyeball so that rays of light are not focused on a single point on the retina.

Auditory nerve fibers

These carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex).

Biconvex

Having two sides that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly like part of a sphere. The lens of the eye is biconvex.

Blepharitis

Inflammation of an eyelid.

Blepharoptosis

Prolapse of the upper eyelid caused by abnormalities of the eyelid muscle or by nerve damage.

Cataract

Clouding or loss of transparency of the lens of the eye.

Chalazion

Small, hard mass (granuloma) on the eyelid.

Choroid

Middle, vascular layer of the eye.

Ciliary body

Structure on each side of the lens that connects the choroid and iris; contains muscles that control the shape of the lens.

Cone

Photoreceptor cell in the retina; responsible for color and central vision.

Conjunctiva

Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball.

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Cornea

Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball.

Corneal abrasion

Rubbing off of a part of the outer layer of the cornea.

Corneoscleral

Pertaining to the cornea and sclera, which is the white of the eye.

Cycloplegic

Paralysis of the muscles of the ciliary body.

Dacryoadenitis

Inflammation of tear glands.

Diabetic retinopathy

Disease of the retina due to long-term effects of diabetes.

Diplopia

Double vision.

Enucleation

Removal of the eyeball from the orbit of the eye.

Esotropia

Turning inward of one or both pupils; cross-eyes.

Exotropia

Turning to the side or outward of one or both pupils.

Fluorescein angiography

Process of recording (viewing and photographing) the circulation of a fluorescein dye through the blood vessels of the retina.

Fovea centralis

Tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision.

Fundus of the eye

Large, posterior inner part of the eye that is visualized with an ophthalmoscope.

Glaucoma

Fluid accumulation in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye causing increased pressure and damage to the retina.

Hemianopsia

Absence of vision for one half, right or left, of an individual's field of vision.

Hordeolum

Inflammation of an oil-secreting gland in the eyelid; stye.

Hyperopia

Farsightedness; light rays are focused beyond, instead of directly on the retina.

Hypertensive retinopathy

Disease of the retina due to high blood pressure.

Intraocular

Pertaining to within the eye.

Iridectomy

Removal of a portion of the iris.

Iridic

Pertaining to the iris.

Iris

Colored, pigmented portion of the eye, surrounding the pupil.

Iritis

Inflammation of the iris of the eye.

Keratitis

Inflammation of the cornea.

Keratoplasty

Surgical repair of the cornea; corneal transplant.

Lacrimal

Pertaining to tears.

Lacrimation

Production of tears.

Laser photocoagulation

Use of a laser to seal retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels.

Lens

Transparent biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye.

Macula

Yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc; contains the fovea centralis, the area of clearest and central vision.

Macular degeneration

Deterioration of the macula of the retina and producing a loss of central vision.

Miosis

Contraction of the pupil of the eye.

Miotic

Drug that causes the pupil of the eye to contract.

Mydriasis

Widening of the pupil of the eye.

Myopia

Nearsightedness; vision for near objects is better than for far.

Nyctalopia

Night blindness or difficult, poor vision at night.

Nystagmus

Repetitive, rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.

Ophthalmic

Pertaining to the eye.

Ophthalmologist

Medical doctor specializing in the diseases of the eye.

Ophthalmoplegia

Paralysis of muscles that move the eyeball.

Ophthalmoscopy

Visual examination of the interior of the eye.

Optic chiasm

Point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain.

Optic disc

Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina.

Optician

Non-medical professional trained in grinding lenses and fitting eyeglasses.

Optic nerve

Cranial nerve that carries impulses from the rod and cone cells of the retina to the cerebral cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain.

Optometrist

Non-medical professional trained to examine and measure the eye to prescribe and fit eyeglasses and contact lenses.

Palpebral

Pertaining to an eyelid.

Papilledema

Swelling of the optic disc; associated with increased pressure within the eye.

Phacoemulsification

Lens of the eye is extracted (cataract removal) using ultrasonic vibrations.

Photophobia

Sensitivity to light.

Presbyopia

Impairment of vision associated with middle or older age.

Pupil

Dark, central portion of the eye.

Pupillary

Pertaining to the pupil of the eye.

Refraction

Bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring light rays into focus on the retina.

Retina

Sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye.

Retinal detachment

Separation of the two layers of the retina from each other.

Retinitis pigmentosa

Inflammation of the retina with pigmentation and progressive scarring of tissue.

Rod

Photoreceptor retinal cell; essential for seeing objects in low light and for peripheral vision.

Sclera

White portion of the eyeball.

Scleral buckle

Procedure to suture a band of silicone on the sclera directly over a detached portion of the retina.

Scleritis

Inflammation of the sclera.

Scotoma

Blind spot in the field of vision.

Slit-lamp microscopy

Examination of ocular (eye) structures using a slit lamp and microscope.

Strabismus

Abnormal deviation of the pupils; esotropia or exotropia are examples.

Thalamus

Relay center in the brain through which optic nerve fibers pass on their way to the cerebral cortex.

Tonometry

Measurement of tension and pressure within the eye; glaucoma test.

Uveitis

Inflammation of the uvea, which is the vascular layer of the eye (including the iris, choroids, and ciliary body).

Visual acuity test

Measurement of clearness of vision; assessed by reading letters of decreasing size on an eye chart.

Visual field test

Measurement of the area in front of the eye in any part of which an object is seen without moving the eye.

Vitrectomy

Removal of vitreous humor.

Vitreous humor

Soft, jelly-like material that fills the inner vitreous chamber of the eye.

Xerophthalmia

Condition of excessive dryness of the eye.

Acoustic

Pertaining to hearing.

Acoustic neuroma

Benign tumor arising from the acoustic nerve.

Audiogram

Record of hearing using an audiometer.

Audiometer

Instrument to measure or test hearing.

Audiometry

Process of testing hearing.

Auditory canal

Channel leading from the ear flap to the eardrum.

Auditory meatus

Opening of the auditory canal to the outside of the body.

Auditory tube

Channel between the middle ear and the throat; eustachian tube.

Aural

Pertaining to the ear.

Auricle

Flap of the ear; pinna.

Cerumen

Waxy substance secreted by the ear; ear wax.

Cholesteatoma

Middle ear mass of cellular debris and cholesterol crystals.

Cochlea

Snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells.

Cochlear

Pertaining to the cochlea.

Deafness

Loss of the ability to hear.

Ear thermometry

Measurement of the temperature of the tympanic membrane by detection of infrared radiation from the eardrum.

Endolymph

Fluid within the labyrinth (canals) of the inner ear; conducts sound waves.

Eustachian tube

Channel between the middle ear and the throat; auditory tube.

Hyperacusis

Excessive sensitivity to sounds.

Incus

Small anvil-shaped bone (ossicle) in the middle ear; second ossicle.

Labyrinth

Maze-like series of canals of the inner ear; cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals.

Macrotia

Abnormally large ears.

Malleus

Hammer-shaped, small bone (ossicle) in the middle ear.

Mastoiditis

Inflammation and infection of the mastoid process just behind the ear.

Ménière disease

Disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph (fluid) pressure.

Microtia

Abnormally small ears.

Myringitis

Inflammation of the eardrum.

Myringotomy

Incision of the eardrum.

Ossicle

Small bone; malleus, incus, or stapes of the middle ear.

Ossiculoplasty

Surgical repair of an ossicle (small bone) of the middle ear.

Otic

Pertaining the ear.

Otolaryngologist

Specialist (surgeon) in ear, nose and throat disorders.

Otomycosis

Fungal infection of the ear.

Otopyorrhea

Discharge of pus from the ear.

Otosclerosis

Overgrowth and hardening of bony tissue in the labyrinth (inner ear).

Otoscopy

Visual examination of the ear using an otoscope.

Oval window

Membrane between the middle and inner ears.

Perilymph

Fluid contained in the labyrinth (canals of the inner ear).

Pinna

Outer ear flap; auricle.

Postauricular

Pertaining to behind the ear.

Presbycusis

Progressive loss of hearing, occurring in middle and older age.

Salpingopharyngeal

Pertaining to the eustachian tube and the throat.

Semicircular canals

Passageways in the inner ear that are associated with maintaining equilibrium.

Serous otitis media

Non-infectious inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of clear fluid.

Stapedectomy

Removal of the stapes (third middle ear bone).

Stapes

Small, stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear; third ossicle.

Suppurative otitis media

Infectious inflammation of the middle ear with pus formation.

Tinnitus

Ringing, buzzing or roaring sound in the ear.

Tuning fork tests

Measure bone and air conduction of sound through the ear.

Tympanic membrane

Membrane between the outer and middle ear; eardrum.

Tympanoplasty

Surgical repair of the eardrum.

Vertigo

Abnormal sensation of moving in space or having objects move about you in space.

Vestibule

Central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting the cochlea and semicircular canals.

Vestibulocochlear

Pertaining to the vestibule and cochlea.

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