Removal of a gland.
Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Outer section of each adrenal gland.
Removal of an adrenal gland.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine.
Inner section of each adrenal gland.
Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH.
Disease of the adrenal glands.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance.
Male hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics.
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney.
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers calcium levels in the blood.
Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine (adrenaline) is an example.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are examples.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.
Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-).
Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.
Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.
Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen.
Normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
Fasting blood sugar
Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus.
Secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland;
stimulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells.
Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.
Pertaining to blood sugar.
Animal starch; glycogen is broken down (glycogenolysis) to produce sugar (glucose).
Sugar in urine.
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.
Tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy and stability.
Pertaining to a hormone.
Chemical secreted by an endocrine gland.
High levels of calcium in the bloodstream; often due to hyperparathyroidism.
High levels of calcium in urine.
High levels of sugar in the blood.
Increased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
Low levels of calcium in the blood.
Low levels of sugar in the blood.
Deficient functioning of the gonads (ovaries or testes).
Deficient production of insulin (pancreatic hormone).
Low levels of potassium in the blood.
Low levels of sodium in the blood.
Removal of the pituitary gland.
Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter cells.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes oxytocin and vasopressin.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
Endocrine (islet cells) and exocrine (enzyme producing cells) gland behind the stomach.
Excision of the pancreas.
Secreted by the parathyroid glands; regulates calcium in the blood.
Removal of parathyroid glands.
Four small endocrine glands on the posterior side of the thyroid gland.
Small endocrine gland in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin.
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.
Hormone secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.
Cavity in the base of the skull; contains the pituitary gland.
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.
Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids (estrogens, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone).
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.
Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
Hormone secreted by the testes.
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).
Endocrine gland in the neck on either side of the trachea.
Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland to increase body metabolism (T4).
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.
Enlargement of extremities due to increased secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.
Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.
Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, excess fat deposition in the body. High levels of exogenous cortisol (cortisone administration) can produce similar results.
Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.
Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.
Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in the diet.
Measurement of eyeball protrusion.
Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis); symptom of hyperthyroidism.
Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
Glucose tolerance test
Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose.
Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type o fhyperthyroidism.
Excessive hair growth.
Increased secretion of insulin from the beta islet cells of the pancreas.
Increased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
Decreased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
Decreased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (type 2) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.
Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland in adults.
Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.
Deficiency of all pituitary gland hormones.
Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).
Radioactive iodine uptake
Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.
Constant muscle contractions; associated with hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism.
Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid function tests
Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.
Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.
Hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).