Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH.
Male hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics.
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.
Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-).
Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.
Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen.
Fasting blood sugar
Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus.
Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter cells.
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.
Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids (estrogens, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone).
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.
Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.
Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.
Enlargement of extremities due to increased secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.
Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, excess fat deposition in the body. High levels of exogenous cortisol (cortisone administration) can produce similar results.
Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.
Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.
Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
Glucose tolerance test
Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose.
Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type o fhyperthyroidism.
High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (type 2) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.
Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.
Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).
Radioactive iodine uptake
Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.
Thyroid function tests
Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.
Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.