Medical Terminology - Chapter 18

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Adenectomy

Removal of a gland.

Adenohypophysis

Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

Adrenal cortex

Outer section of each adrenal gland.

Adrenalectomy

Removal of an adrenal gland.

Adrenaline

Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine.

Adrenal medulla

Inner section of each adrenal gland.

Adrenocorticotropic

Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH.

Adrenocorticotropin

Adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH.

Adrenopathy

Disease of the adrenal glands.

Aldosterone

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance.

Androgen

Male hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics.

Antidiuretic hormone

Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney.

Calcitonin

Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers calcium levels in the blood.

Catecholamines

Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine (adrenaline) is an example.

Corticosteroid

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are examples.

Cortisol

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.

Electrolyte

Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-).

Endocrinologist

Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders.

Epinephrine

Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.

Estradiol

Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.

Estrogen

Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.

Estrogenic

Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen.

Euthyroid

Normal functioning of the thyroid gland.

Fasting blood sugar

Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus.

Follicle-stimulating

Secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland;

hormone

stimulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells.

Glucagon

Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.

Glucocorticoid

Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.

Glycemic

Pertaining to blood sugar.

Glycogen

Animal starch; glycogen is broken down (glycogenolysis) to produce sugar (glucose).

Glycosuria

Sugar in urine.

Gonadotropin

Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.

Growth hormone

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.

Homeostasis

Tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy and stability.

Hormonal

Pertaining to a hormone.

Hormone

Chemical secreted by an endocrine gland.

Hypercalcemia

High levels of calcium in the bloodstream; often due to hyperparathyroidism.

Hypercalciuria

High levels of calcium in urine.

Hyperglycemia

High levels of sugar in the blood.

Hyperthyroidism

Increased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.

Hypocalcemia

Low levels of calcium in the blood.

Hypoglycemia

Low levels of sugar in the blood.

Hypogonadism

Deficient functioning of the gonads (ovaries or testes).

Hypoinsulinism

Deficient production of insulin (pancreatic hormone).

Hypokalemia

Low levels of potassium in the blood.

Hyponatremia

Low levels of sodium in the blood.

Hypophysectomy

Removal of the pituitary gland.

Hypophysis

Pituitary gland.

Hypopituitarism

Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hypothalamus

Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.

Insulin

Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter cells.

Luteinizing hormone

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.

Mineralocorticoid

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.

Neurohypophysis

Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes oxytocin and vasopressin.

Norepinephrine

Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.

Oxytocin

Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.

Pancreas

Endocrine (islet cells) and exocrine (enzyme producing cells) gland behind the stomach.

Pancreatectomy

Excision of the pancreas.

Parathormone

Secreted by the parathyroid glands; regulates calcium in the blood.

Parathyroidectomy

Removal of parathyroid glands.

Parathyroid glands

Four small endocrine glands on the posterior side of the thyroid gland.

Pineal gland

Small endocrine gland in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin.

Pituitary gland

Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.

Polydipsia

Excessive thirst.

Progesterone

Hormone secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.

Prolactin

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.

Receptor

Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.

Sella turcica

Cavity in the base of the skull; contains the pituitary gland.

Somatotropin

Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.

Steroid

Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids (estrogens, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone).

Sympathomimetic

Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.

Target tissue

Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.

Testosterone

Hormone secreted by the testes.

Tetraiodothyronine

Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).

Thyroid gland

Endocrine gland in the neck on either side of the trachea.

Thyroiditis

Inflammation of the thyroid gland.

Thyrotropin

Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.

Thyroxine

Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland to increase body metabolism (T4).

Triiodothyronine

Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.

Vasopressin

Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.

Acromegaly

Enlargement of extremities due to increased secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.

Addison disease

Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.

Adrenal virilism

Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.

Cretinism

Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.

Cushing syndrome

Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, excess fat deposition in the body. High levels of exogenous cortisol (cortisone administration) can produce similar results.

Diabetes insipidus

Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.

Diabetes mellitus

Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.

Dwarfism

Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.

Endemic goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in the diet.

Exophthalmometry

Measurement of eyeball protrusion.

Exophthalmos

Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis); symptom of hyperthyroidism.

Gastroparesis

Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.

Gigantism

Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.

Glucose tolerance test

Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose.

Goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland.

Graves disease

Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type o fhyperthyroidism.

Hirsutism

Excessive hair growth.

Hyperinsulinism

Increased secretion of insulin from the beta islet cells of the pancreas.

Hyperparathyroidism

Increased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.

Hypoparathyroidism

Decreased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.

Hypothyroidism

Decreased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.

Ketoacidosis

High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (type 2) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.

Myxedema

Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland in adults.

Nodular goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.

Panhypopituitarism

Deficiency of all pituitary gland hormones.

Pheochromocytoma

Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).

Radioactive iodine uptake

Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH

Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.

Tetany

Constant muscle contractions; associated with hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism.

Thyroid carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland.

Thyroid function tests

Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.

Thyroid scan

Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.

Thyrotoxicosis

Hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).

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