Medical Terminology - Chapter 20

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Abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body.

Adduction

Movement toward the midline of the body.

Angiogram

X-ray image of blood vessels after injecting contrast material into the vessels.

Anteroposterior

In this AP x-ray view, x-rays travel from an anteriorly placed source to a posteriorly placed detector (x-ray beam passes from the front to the back of the body).

Arthrography

Process of x-ray imaging a joint after injecting contrast into the joint.

Bone scan

A radioactive (technetium-99m) phosphate compound is injected intravenously and bones are scanned for evidence of tumors.

Cholangiography

Process of x-ray imaging bile ducts after injecting contrast into the bile ducts.

Cineradiography

Use of motion picture techniques to record a series of x-ray images.

Computed tomography

Use of x-ray equipment and a computer to create multiple views of organs, including cross-sectional or axial images.

Contrast studies

Material (contrast media) is injected into vessels and organs to obtain contrast with surrounding tissues when viewed on x-ray and other images.

Echocardiography

Sound waves are used to image the structure of the heart.

Eversion

Turning outward.

Extension

Lengthening or straightening a flexed limb.

Flexion

Bending a part of the body.

Fluorescence

Emission of glowing light that results from exposure to and absorption of radiation from x-rays.

Fluoroscopy

Process of using x-rays to produce an image on a fluorescent screen.

Gallium scan

Radioisotope (gallium 67) is injected intravenously and has an affinity for tumors and other lesions.

Gamma camera

Machine to detect gamma rays given off by radiopharmaceuticals (radioactive compounds) during scanning for diagnostic purposes.

Gamma rays

High-energy rays emitted by radioactive substances in tracer studies.

Half-life

Time required for a radioactive substance to lose half its radioactivity by disintegration.

Hysterosalpingography

X-ray record of the endometrial cavity and fallopian tubes is obtained after injection of contrast material through the vagina and into the endocervical canal.

Hysterosonogram

Saline solution is injected through a catheter inserted through the vagina and into the endocervical canal to distend the uterine cavity, which is then examined by ultrasound.

Interventional radiology

Therapeutic procedures performed by a radiologist.

Inversion

Turning inward.

In vitro, In vivo

Process, test, or procedure performed, measured, or observed outside a living organism.

Ionization

Transformation of electrically neutral substances into electrically charged particles.

Labeled compound

Combination of a radioactive substance (radionuclide) and a drug; used in nuclear medicine studies.

Lateral decubitus

Lying down on one's side with the x-ray beam horizontally positioned.

Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic field and radio waves produce sagittal, coronal, and axial images of the body; especially effective to image soft tissues.

Myelography

X-ray image of the spinal cord after injection of contrast into the membranes surrounding the spinal cord.

Nuclear medicine

Medical specialty that studies the uses of radioactive substances (radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals) in the diagnosis of disease.

Oblique

Positioned at an angle; an x-ray view.

Positron-emission

Radionuclides given intravenously emit positrons, which

tomography (PET)

create a cross-sectional image of cellular metabolism in specialized areas of the body.

Posteroanterior

In this position, x-ray beams pass from the back to the front of the body.

Prone

Lying on the belly (face down).

Pyelogram

X-ray record of the kidneys (renal pelvis) and urinary tract after contrast is injected (intravenously or retrograde).

Radiographer

Aids physicians in administering diagnostic x-ray procedures.

Radiology

Medical specialty concerned with the use of x-rays for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Radioimmunoassay

Test combines radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect minute quantities of substances in a patient's blood.

Radioisotope

Radioactive form of an element; radionuclide.

Radiolucent

Permitting the passage of x-rays.

Radionuclide

Radioactive form of an element; gives off energy in the form of radiation; radioisotope.

Radiopaque

Obstructing the passage of x-rays.

Radiopharmaceutical

Radioactive drug (radionuclide plus a drug) that is administered safely for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Recumbent

Lying down (prone or supine).

Roentgenology

Study of x-rays; radiology.

Scan

Image of an area, organ, or tissue of the body obtained from ultrasound, radioactive tracer studies, or computed tomography.

Single photon emission

Radioactive tracer is injected intravenously, and a computer computed tomography reconstructs a three-dimensional image based on a (SPECT) composite of many views.

Sonogram

Image of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the body; echogram or ultrasound image.

Supine

Lying on one's back.

Tagging

Attaching a radionuclide to a chemical allowing its path in the body.

Thallium scan

Thallium 201 is injected intravenously to allow for myocardial perfusion and assess damage to heart muscle from heart attacks.

Technetium Tc 99m

A nuclear medicine study in which a radiopharmaceutical sestamibi scan (Tc 99m sestamibi) is injected intravenously and traced to heart muscle to observe heart function.

Therapeutic

Pertaining to treatment or therapy.

Thyroid scan

An iodine 131 radionuclide is administered intravenously, and an image of the size and shape of the thyroid gland is obtained by scanning.

Tomography

Process of taking a series of images to show an organ in layers or depth.

Tracer studies

Radionuclides are attached to chemicals, used as tags or markers, and followed as they travel through the body.

Transducer

Handheld device that sends and receives ultrasound signals.

Ultrasonography

Diagnostic technique that projects and retrieves high-frequency sound waves as they bounce (echo) off parts of the body.

Uptake

Rate of absorption of a radionuclide into an organ or tissue.

Urography

Process of taking x-ray images of the urinary tract after injecting contrast.

Ventilation-perfusion studies

Radiopharmaceutical is inhaled (ventilation study) and injected intravenously (perfusion study) followed by imaging its passage through the respiratory tract.

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