Medical Terminology - Chapter 22

103 terms by tab11576 

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Affect

External expression of emotion; emotional response.

Agoraphobia

Fear of leaving home or leaving a safe place.

Amnesia

Loss of memory.

Amphetamines

Central nervous system stimulants.

Anorexia nervosa

Eating disorder of excessive dieting and refusal to maintain a normal body weight.

Antisocial personality

Characterized by lack of loyalty or concern for others and lack of moral standards.

Anxiety disorders

Characterized by unpleasant tensions, distress, and avoidance behavior; examples are phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic distress disorder.

Anxiolytic

Drug that relieves anxiety and produces a relaxing effect.

Apathy

Absence of emotions; lack of interest or emotional involvement.

Asperger syndrome

A pervasive developmental disorder characterized by delays in socialization and communication skills; often considered a less severe type of autism.

Atypical antipsychotics

Drugs used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses (psychoses).

Autism

Severe lack of responsiveness to others, preoccupation with inner thoughts, withdrawal and retarded language development.

Autistic thought

Preoccupation with self-centered, illogical ideas and fantasies that exclude the external world.

Benzodiazepines

Drugs used to treat anxiety and panic attacks.

Bipolar disorder

Mood disorder with alternating periods of mania and depression.

Borderline personality

Instability in interpersonal relationships and sense of self; alternating involvement with and rejection of people.

Bulimia nervosa

Eating disorder marked by binge eating followed by vomiting, purging (defecation), and depression.

Cannabis

Active substance in marijuana; THC.

Catatonic stupor

A type of schizophrenia marked by inability to move or react to the environment.

Claustrophobia

Fear of closed-in places.

Cognitive behavior therapy

Changing behavior patterns and responses by training and repetition and learning how thinking patterns cause symptoms, such as anger, anxiety and depression.

Compulsion

Uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly.

Conversion disorder

A physical symptom appears with no organic basis and as a result of anxiety and inner conflict.

Cyclothymia

Patient experiences alternating states of depression and exhilaration; mild form of bipolar disorder.

Defense mechanism

Unconscious technique (coping mechanism) that a person uses to resolve or conceal conflicts and anxiety.

Delirium

Confusion in thinking; faulty perceptions and irrational behavior.

Delirium tremens

Confusion in thinking, anxiety, tremors, and sweating occurring with withdrawal from excessive and habitual use of alcohol.

Delusion

Fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence.

Dementia

Loss of higher mental functioning, including memory, judgment, and reasoning.

Depression

Major mood disorder marked by chronic and excessive sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry, and discouragement.

Dissociative disorder

Chronic or sudden disturbance of memory, identity, or consciousness; examples are multiple-personality disorder and psychogenic amnesia.

Dysphoria

Sadness, hopelessness, and depressive mood; feeling "low."

Dysthymia

Depressive episodes, but not of the same intensity or duration as major depression.

Ego

Central, coordinating branch of the personality.

Electroconvulsive therapy

Electric current produces a convulsive seizure to treat mood disorders (depression or the depressive phase of bipolar disorder); used in patients who are resistant to drug therapy or when rapid response is needed.

Euphoria

Exaggerated feeling of well-being; elevated mood, "high."

Exhibitionism

Compulsive need to expose one's body, particularly the genitals, to an unsuspecting stranger.

Family therapy

Treatment of an entire family to resolve and understand their conflicts and problems.

Fetishism

Use of non-living objects, such as articles of clothing, as substitutes for a human sexual love object.

Free association

Psychoanalytic technique in which a patient is encouraged to reveal thoughts one after another without censorship.

Fugue

Flight from customary surroundings; dissociate disorder.

Gender-identity disorder

Strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the opposite sex.

Group therapy

Patients with similar problems gain insight into their personalities through discussion and interaction together.

Hallucination

False or unreal sensory perception; hearing voices and seeing things.

Hallucinogen

Substance that produces hallucinations.

Histrionic personality

Highly emotional, immature, and dependent personality type with irrational outbursts, tantrums and flamboyant, theatrical behavior.

Hypnosis

Induction of a trance-like state to consciousness in a patient to increase the pace of psychotherapy.

Hypochondriasis

Exaggerated concern about one's health.

Hypomania

Elevated excitement that is of lesser intensity than mania.

Id

Major unconscious part of the personality; instinctual drives and desires.

Insight-oriented therapy

Face to face discussion of life problems and feelings to increase understanding of thoughts and behavior patterns; psychodynamic therapy.

Kleptomania

Strong impulse to steal, often with little actual desire for the stolen item.

Labile

Unstable; undergoing rapid emotional change.

Lithium

Drug used to treat the manic episodes in bipolar disorder.

Mania

State of excessive excitability, hyperactive elation and agitation.

Mental

Pertaining to the mind.

Mood disorders

Prolonged emotion dominates a person's life; bipolar and depressive disorders.

Mutism

Non-reactive state; stupor.

Narcissistic personality

Characterized by grandiose sense of self-importance or preoccupation with fantasies of success or power; self-love without empathy for others.

Neuroleptic drug

Antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychoses such as schizophrenia and severe depression; examples are atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole (Abilify) and olanzapine (Zyprexa).

Neurosis

Repressed conflicts lead to mental symptoms such as anxiety and fears that disturb ability to function; less serious mental disorder than a psychosis.

Obsession

An involuntary, persistent idea or emotion.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Anxiety disorder involving recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive actions (compulsions) that dominate a patient's life.

Opioid

Drug derived from opium. Examples are cocaine, morphine, and heroin.

Paranoia

Overly suspicious system of thinking with fixed delusions that one is being harassed, persecuted or unfairly treated.

Paranoid personality

Characterized by recurrent delusions of persecution and jealousy with suspicion and mistrust of other people; quick to take offense.

Paraphilia

Recurrent, intense sexual urge; fantasy or behavior that involves unusual objects, activities and situations.

Pedophilia

Need for sexual gratification with a child.

Personality disorder

Established, lifelong pattern marked by inflexibility and impairment of social functioning.

Phenothiazines

Drugs used to treat serious mental illnesses or psychoses. They modify psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) and behavior.

Phobia

Irrational fear of an object or an situation; claustrophobia (closed spaces), agoraphobia (leaving home or a safe place) and acrophobia (heights) are examples.

Play therapy

A child, through play, uses toys to express conflicts and feelings that he or she is unable to communicate in a direct manner.

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Anxiety disorder that follows a traumatic incident; symptoms such as intense fear, helplessness, insomnia, nightmares and less responsiveness to the external world.

Projective test

Diagnostic personality test using unstructured stimuli (inkblots, pictures, incomplete sentences) to evoke responses that reflect aspects of an individual's personality.

Psychiatrist

Physician who treats the mind and mental disorders.

Psychiatry

Treatment of the mind and mental disorders.

Psychoanalysis

Form of psychotherapy in which the patient explores his or her unconscious emotions and past to understand and change current behavior and feelings.

Psychodrama

A group therapy in which a patient expresses feelings by acting out roles with other patients.

Psychogenic

Pertaining to produced within the mind, having emotional and psychologic origin, rather than a physical cause.

Psychologist

Individual (Ph.D or Ed.D) specializing in mental processes and how the brain functions in health and disease; treats patients with psychotherapy, but cannot prescribe drugs.

Psychopharmacology

Treatment of psychiatric disorders with drugs.

Psychosis

Loss of contact with reality; often with delusions and hallucinations.

Psychosomatic

Pertaining to the inter-relationship of the mind (psych/o) and body (somat/o).

Psychotherapy

Treatment of the mind.

Pyromania

Strong impulse (obsessive urge) to set objects on fire.

Reality testing

Ability to perceive fact from fantasy.

Repression

Defense mechanism by which unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and impulses are automatically pushed into the unconscious.

Schizoid personality

Emotionally cold and aloof, as if split off from other people; indifferent to praise or criticism or to the feelings of others.

Schizophrenia

Psychosis marked by withdrawal from reality into an inner world of disorganized thinking and conflict.

Sedatives

Drugs that lessen anxiety.

Sexual disorders

Conditions involving sexual use of nonhuman objects and acts involving suffering, humiliation, and non-consenting partners. Disorders also include sexual dysfunctions such as inhibition of sexual desire or changes in sexual responses.

Sexual masochism

Sexual gratification gained by being mutilated, beaten, or bound or otherwise made to suffer by another person.

Sexual sadism

Sexual gratification gained by inflicting physical or psychologic pain or harm on others.

Somatoform disorders

Conditions in which the patient has physical or bodily symptoms that cannot be explained by any actual physical illness.

Substance-related disorders

Regular overuse of psychoactive substances (alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioids, sedatives), which can affect the central nervous system.

Superego

Internalized conscious and judgmental and moral part of the mind.

Supportive psychotherapy

Treatment that involves offering encouragement, support, and hope to patients facing difficult life transitions and events.

Tolerance

Development of insensitivity to a drug; increasing doses of a drug are needed to produce a desired effect.

Transference

Process by which a patient relates to a therapist as though the therapist were a prominent childhood figure.

Transvestic fetishism

Cross-dressing by a male in women's attire.

Tricyclic antidepressants

Group of drugs used to treat severe depression.

Voyerism

Abnormal desire to look at sexual organs or watch sexual acts.

Xenophobia

Fear of strangers.

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