biology chapter one.

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integrated science 10a (biology) chapter 1

biology

the study of life

organization

the high degree of order within an organism's internal and external parts and in it's interactions with the living world

cell

the smallest unit that can perform all of life's processes

unicellular

organisms made with only one cell

multicellular

organisms made of multiple cells

organs

structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system

tissues

groups of cells that have similar abilities that allow the organ to function

organelles

tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive

biological molecules

the chemical compounds that provide physical structure and that bring about movement, energy use, or other cell functions

homeostasis

the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though the environmental conditions are constantly changing

metabolism

the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment

cell division

the formation of two new cells from an existing cell

developement

the process by which an organism become a mature adult

reproduction

the process in which organisms produce new organisms like themselves

gene

a short segment of DNA the contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism

domain

one of the three major subdivisions of all organisms

kingdoms

divide domains

ecology

the branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and with the environment

ecosystems

communities of all living species and their physical environment

evolution

descent with modification

natural selection

"survival of the fittest"

adaptions

traits that improve one's ability to survive and reproduce

scientific method

an organized to learn how the natural world works

observation

the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question

hypothesis

a proposed explaination for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions

prediction

a statement that forecasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis was true

experiment

used to test a hypothesis and it's predictions

control group

provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group

experimental group

identical to the control group except for one factor

independent variable

manipulated by the experimenter

dependent variable

manipulated by the independent variable

theory

a set of related hypothesis' that is confirmed to be true many times

peer review

when scientists who are already experts in the field anonymously read and critique a research paper

compound light microscope

a microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an image

eyepiece (ocular)

magnifies the image usually 10x

objective lens

enlarges the image of the specimen

stage

the platform that supports the slide holding the specimen;

light source

a light bulb that provides light for viewing the image

magnification

the increase of an object's apparent size

nosepiece

the structure that holds the set of objective lens

resolution

the power to show details clearly in an image

scanning electron microscope

a microscope that passes a beam of electrons over the specimen's surface

transmission electron microscope

transmits a beam of electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen

metric system

a decimal system and thus is base on powers of 10

base units

describe length, mass, time, and other qualities in the SI system

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