Chemistry 521A - Chapter 22

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Prentice Hall Chemistry

Cracking

process by which hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller molecules

Petroleum

fossil fuel containing straight and branched chain alkanes

Distillation

process by which petroleum is separated into fractions

Lignite

Brown coal, consisting of about 50% carbon

Anthracite

Hard coal, which is high in carbon content

Alkynes

hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon triple bonds

Substituent

Group of atoms that takes the place of hydrogen in a parent hydrocarbon

cis configuration

Geometric isomer with substituted groups on the same side of the double bond

homologous series

series of compounds related by a constant increment of change

arene

another name for an aromatic hydrocarbon

stereoisomers

molecules that differ in the arrangement of atoms in space

saturated compounds

organic compounds that contain the maiximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom

cyclic hydrocarbons

organic compounds that contain hydrocarbon rings

resonance

when two or more equally valid structures can be drawn for a molecule

phenyl group

name given to a benzene ring when it is a substituent

aromatic compounds

group of hydrocarbons that contain a benzene ring or a ring with bonding like that of benzene

isomers

compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures

structural isomers

compounds that have the same molecular formula but the atoms are joined in a different order

asymmetric carbon

a carbon with four different groups attached

geometric isomers

isomers that differ in the concentration of groups around a double bond

trans configuration

configuration of the substituted groups on opposite sides of the double bond

optical isomers

pairs of molecules that differ only in the way four different groups are arranged around a central carbon atom

alkenes

contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond

unsaturated compounds

organic compounds that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds

straight chain alkanes

organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen

branched chain alkanes

alkanes that contain one or more alkyl substituents

alkyl group

a hydrocarbon substituent

hydrocarbons

hydrocarbons that contain only single covalent bonds

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