a message our brains receive from a sensory receptor that has been stimulated.
physical system that receives a particular kind of physical stimulation and translates it into a electrochemical message the brain can understand.
set of cognitive processes through which we interpret the messages our senses provide.
systematic study of the relationship between the physical stimulation of a sense organ and the psychological sensations produced by that stimulation.
awareness of the presence of a sensory stimulus
the hypothetical minimum amount of physical energy of a given kind-scent, sound, pressure, and so on- that an individual can detect
signal-detection theory (SDT)
says that four combinations of stimulu and resonse are possible.
ability to ascertain the difference between one stimulus and another.
difference threshold/ just noticeable difference (jnd)
minimum amount of difference that can be detecteed betweeen 2 sensory stimuli
greater the magnitude of stimuls, the larger a difference needs to be in order to be detected.
where stimulation occurs; have evolved to detect particular kinds of enery, such as mechanical, eelecromagnetic, or chemical energy.
when sensory receptors covert energy received from the environment into the form of energy that is meaningful.
phsiological form of communication through which sensory receptors convey a range of information about stimuli throughout the nervous system.
a recording on one neuron in the brain.
temporary physiological response to a sensed change in the environment
referrenec level of sensory stimulation against which an individual may judge new stimuli or changes in existing stimuli.
range of energy of varying wavelengths
curved exterior lens that gathers and focuses the entering light
hole in the center of iris
circular muscle in eye
curved interior part of the eye, which causes light to bend as it passes through it.
the process by which the lens changes its curvature to focus on objects at differen distances
network of neurons that extends over most of the back (posterior) surgace of the interior of the eye
first layer of neuronal tissue- closest to the front, outward-facing surgace of the eye
axons of the ganglion cells
Amacrine and horizontal cells
these make single lateral connections among adjacent areas of the etinl in the middle layer of cells.
make dual connections forward and outward to the ganglion cells, as well as backward and inward to the third layer of retinal cells
transduce light energy into electrochemical energy
long and thin photoreceptors
short and thick photoreceptors
small, thin region of the retina, the sixe of the head of a pin, that is most directly in the line of sight.
chemical substancess that react to light
small area on the retinal where the optic nerve pushes aside photreceptors to exit the eye
an adjustment to a decrease in light intensity
corresponds closely to what we call "color"
additive color mixture
when light waves of varying wave-lengths are mixed or blended
subtractive color mixture
remaining wavelengths of light that are reflected from an object after other wavelengths of light have been absorbed by that object
Trichromatic theory of color vision
the young helmholtz theory; our cones are particularly receptive to light of specific wavelenghts. each cone absorbs light waves that are either short, medium, or long. light or relatively short wavelenght is violet or blue, light of medium wavelenght is green or yellow, and light of relatively long wavelenght is orange or red.
opponent- process theory of color vision
there are opposing processes in human vision, wach of which contrasts one color with another.
occur when visual images prompt distortions of visual perceptions
perception that stimuli remain the same even when immediat senstaions of the stimuli change.
perception that an object remains the same sixe despite changes in the size of the proximal stimulus on the retina.
we perceive the top line and top log as being longer than the bottom line and bottom log, respectively
Müler- Lyer illusion
we tend to view two equally long line segments as being differenc lengths.
refers to our perceiving an object as retaining its shape even when the shape it casts on te retinal changes
refers to our perception that an obect is evenly illuminated despite differences in actual amount of light that reaches our eyes.
monocular depth cues
represented by two dimensions
binocular depth cues
captialize on the fact that each eye views a scene from a slightly different angle. This displarity of viewing angles provides information about depth.
use of 2 eyes in coordination to perceive depth
slight discrepancy in the viewpoints of the two eyes
based on the notion that the whole is different from the sume of its individual parts
any object perceived as being highlighted almost always against, or in contrast to, some kind of receding unhighlighted background
each of a given pair of adjacent or even interconnecting figures can be seen as either figure our ground.
one views perception as involving complex problem solving
one views perception as involving simpler and lower-level processes such as responses to retinal stimulation
attempts to link the perception of form to the functioning of neurons in the brain
posits that we have templates or prototypes stored in our mind
according to which wea ttempt to match features of an observed pattern to features stored in memory
stroboscopic motion "apparent motion"
the perception of motion produced by a stroboscope- an instrument that intermittently flashes an alternating pair of lights against a dark background
corresponds to our sensation of loudness
how high or low a tone sounds
quality of sounds that allows us to tell the difference between an A flat played on a piano and an A flat played on a harmonica
visible outer part of the ear, collects sound waves
physiological structure of the outer ear that vibrates in response to the sound waves
the first part of the inner ear
coiled and channeled main structure of the inner ear
one of the fluid-filled canals that are sparated by membranes
function as auditory receptors
posits that we hear each pitch as a function of the location in the basilar membrane that is stimulated
suggests that the basilar membrane reproduces the vibrations that enter the ear
says auditory neurons are able to cooperate
says both place and frequency play some role in hearing pitch
tast buds/ papillae
clusters that contain taste-receptor cells located inside the small visible protrusions on the tongue
sense of smell
chemical substances secreted by nonhuman animals. Pheromones trigger specific kinds of reactions in other animals, usually of the same species
olfactory epithelium (spell skin)
In the nasal
mucosa, the membranes that secrete protective mucus
where its neurons communicate with other neurons in complex arrangements
free nerve endings
specialized sensory receptors that register pain and temperature and notice when a hair follicle is bent
sense that helps us ascertain our skeletal movements and positioning
sense of balance or equilibrium
comprises the vestibular sacs and semicircular canals