Chemistry 521A - Chapter 8

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Molecule

an electrically neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds

Molecular Compound

compound composed of molecules

Covalent Bond

joins atoms held together by sharing electrons

Diatomic molecule

a molecule composed of two atoms

Molecular formula

shows the kinds and numbers present in a molecule of a compound

Single Covalent Bond

a chemical bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared by two bonded atoms

Structural formula

a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion

bond dissociation energy

the amount of energy required to break a covalent bond between atoms

Polyatomic ion

a tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit

Coordinate covalent bond

a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons

VESPR Theory

states that because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible

linear molecule

a term used to describe the shape of certain molecules such as CO2

sigma bond

a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical along the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei

pi bond

a bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in the sausage-shaped regions above and below the nuclei of the bonded atoms

hybridization

a process in which several atomic orbitals overlap to form the same number of equivalent hybrid orbitals

nonpolar covalent bond

a bond formed when the atoms in a molecule are alike and the bonding electrons are shared equally

polar covalent bond

a bond formed when two different atoms are joined by covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared unequally

polar molecule

a molecule in which one end is slightly positive and the other is slightly negative

van der Waals forces

a term used to describe the weakest intermolecular attractions; these include dispersion forces and dipole interactions

network solid

a substance in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other

double covalent bond

a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons

dispersion force

attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; they are the weakest interactions between molecules

triple covalent bond

a bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms

hydrogen bond

attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electron negative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom

resonance structure

one of the two or more equally valid electron dot structures of a molecule or a polyatomic ion

dipole

a molecule that has two poles or regions with opposite charges

unshared pairs

a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms

electronegativity

a relative measure of an atom's ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond

bond energy

the amount of energy required to break a specific bond in one mole of molecule, given in kJ/mole

valence electrons

an electron that occupies the outermost energy level or shell of an atom

Lewis Structures

a symbolic representation of the arrangement of the valence electrons of an element or compound

octet rule

states that when bonds form, atoms gain, lose or share electrons in such as way as to achieve an octet or filled energy level

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