Treaty of Amiens
1802, between France and Great Britain (Second Coalition had already ended at the Treaty of Luneville, 1801). This treaty settled peace with GB. For short period then, 1802 to 1803, there was peace - the only period of peace between 1792 and 1814, when no European power was at war with another.
The "Shame of the Princes"
phrase used by patriotic German historians to describe the scramble by German rulers for territory on right bank of Rhine after left bank territory expropriated by France in treaty of Campo Formio in 1797 with Austria(ended the First Coalition). Resulted in HRE being mauled over by individual German princes.
During the Third Coalition - in 1805, Napoleon's forces surrounded an Austrian force of 50,000 men of ULM, Bavaria(southern Germany), and forced them to surrender.
Battle of Trafalgar
In October of 1805 at a cape off the Spanish coast - a major naval battle. Lord Nelson and the British navy annihilated the main body of the combined fleets of Spain and France. Established supremacy of the British navy for a century or more. Yet had to prevent Napoleon from building a bigger navy on the European continent.
Battle of Austerlitz
After Ulm, Napoleon moved into Moravia where he defeated Austrian and Russian armies - December 1805. Russians withdrew to Poland and Austrians made peace.
Treaty of Pressburg
Following Austerlitz, Napoleon took Venetia from Austrians (who'd received it in 1797) and he annexed it to his recently acquired kingdom in Italy. This kingdom included much of Italy north of Rome. The Adriatic port cities of Venice and Trieste started building up Napoleon's fleet.
Confederation of the Rhine
Napoleon formed this in 1807 from a league of about 20 German princes. Each was sovereign and the confederation included the kingdoms of Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg and Westphalia. Westphalia was made up of Hanover and bits of Prussia. Napoleon put his youngest brother, Jerome, on the throne.
Battles of Jena and Auerstadt
French smashed the Prussian army at these two battles in October, 1806. French cavalry dominated Germany. Prussian king and government took refuge in the east at Konigsburg where the Tsar of Russia and his reforming/recovering Russian army might protect them.
Battle of Eylau
This was Napoleon's battle with the Russian army after he marched his troops through Poland and East Prussia to meet them.
Battle of Friedland
Napoleon then defeated the Russian army in June of 1807. Alexander I did not want to retreat through Russia, uncertain whether it might lead to a revolt of either the serfs or the nobles. So, agreed to negotiate with Napoleon.
Treaty of Tilsit
June 1807: Napoleon and Alexander I met on a raft in the middle of the Nieman River near the border between Russia and Prussia. The Prussian king, Frederick William III, was waiting nervously on the bank. Napoleon charmed Alexander - let him develop Russia to the East in exchange for non-interference with Napoleon's plans in West. In effect, France and Russian seen as "allies" for a while (5 years). Mainly an alliance against GB - but a reluctant one from Russia's perspective. Napoleon was to continue his occupation of Prussia.
1808: Napoleon took the Spanish throne - got Charles IV and his son to abdicate and put his brother, Joseph, on the throne in 1808. Used large French army to accomplish this. Many in Spain resisted this occupation(remind me to show you the Goya painting). Portugal resisted Napoleon's Continental System. Being faithful Catholics, the Spanish and Portuguese saw the French as Godless villains. Britain sent the Duke of Wellington through Portugal to assist the resistance. There then followed a five year long war. There were many cruelties and atrocities, on both sides. French referred to resistance fighters as guerillas - small warriors(la guerre = the war) and thus a new type of warfare was labelled.
Capitulation of Baylen
In the Peninsular War, in July of 1808, a French general was forced to surrender for the first time since the Revolution. He surrendered an army corps to the Spanish guerillas without fighting. In August another one did the same to the British army in Portugal. The Peninsular would prove to be a big drain on Napoleon and resulted in him having to fight wars on two fronts.
Grand Duchy of Warsaw
Napoleon set up this in 1808. He was making moves to recreate the Polish state that had been disassembled during the three partitions. This upset Alexander I who had his own designs for Poland and was disappointed that Napoleon was not supporting Russian plans for expansion into the Balkans.
Was Napoleon's foreign minister. Had been a Bishop of Toulouse during the Old Regime and "on board" during the early days of the French Revolution but avoided the dangers of the Terror by being in America at that time. He supported the rise of Napoleon and became a minister and adviser. However, Talleyrand was not entirely faithful to Napoleon. He was a political survivor - out to maintain his own safety. During the French-Russian alliance he had even confided in Alexander I that he thought Napoleon was overextending himself and that it was best for the tsar to just bide his time. He was thus setting himself up for political survival again. Indeed, he would later be France's representative at the Congress of Vienna.
Battle of Wagram
1809 - Austria attempted a war of liberation and fought this battle against Napoleon in July. Napoleon won again. It was a short war. Napoleon allowed the Danubian monarchy of Hapsburgs to survive.
Metternich (Clemens von)
Was the Austrian minister of foreign affairs in 1809. Was German, from the west Rhine area - the territory which had been annexed by France. Had moved to Austria and married the daughter of Count Kaunitz. He was a diplomat concerned with Austria's best interest. Saw Russia as Austria's main challenge/threat. Therefore sought alliance with Napoleon. Arranged the marriage of Princess Marie Louise (neice of Marie Antoinette) to Napoleon. Napoleon had divorced Josephine since she was unable to produce an heir and he wanted a dynasty for his newly created empire. Metternich would be a very important figure at the Congress of Vienna and in the Age of Reaction that would follow(sometimes referred to as the Age of Metternich).
Successor to the French Republic. Included Belgium, left bank of Rhine, Holland, German coast along Baltic and Italian coast to include Rome (from Lubceck to Rome). Governed by departmental prefects who reported to Paris (83 departments increased to 130 by 1810).
Added dependent states to the French Empire. Included the Swiss Federation(a republic); Illyrian Provinces (Trieste and Dalmatia); Grand Duchy of Warsaw; Confederation of Rhine (Westphalia, Saxony, Bavaria, and Wurtemburg and others).
Allied to Napoleon, to North and East, under their traditional govts of the three great powers(Prussia, Austria and Russia). But also included Denmark and Sweden. Technically at war with GB (through Continental System) though actually no open hostilities. But apart from the Cont. Syst., Nap had no other direct, lawful influence on their internal affairs.
"King of Rome"
As Rome was a part of the French Empire, Nap valued it for its Imperial Value(harking back to Roman Empire). Considered it the second city of his empire and gave his son the title of "King." Pope Pius VII protested and was put in prison in France.
(r. 1800-1823) Concluded the Concordat with Napoleon in 1801. But later objected to Nap's son being made king of Rome and was imprisoned in France. In captivity several years and treated quite harshly. This turned many in France against Napoleon. Though as things going badly for Nap after Russian campaign he began to treat Pope more humanely and attempted to smooth over relations with a new Concordat in 1813. Pope would later write to British regent on behalf of Nap when he was in captivity in St. Helena and ask for kinder treatment of Nap and his entourage on that prison island.
Nap transplanted his Code to all dependent states. He thought it applicable to all. Enlightenment ideas included a universalist view. Reforms were directed against all things feudal, in favor of legal equality and established govt control/authority over subjects. Classes were to be wiped out, privileges gone and "careers open to talent."
East coast of the Adriatic. This was part of the Grand Empire and administered almost like departments of France. Included Trietse and the Dalmatian coast.
Grand Duchy of Warsaw
Since Russians objected to a revived Kingdom of Poland, Nap gave his creation(part of Grand Empire) this title. It was to be a dependent state like the Swiss Fed or the Illyrian Provinces. Also in this category was...
Confederation of the Rhine
Included all Germany between what France had annexed in the West to what Prussia and Austria held in the East(Equiv. to 20th century W. Germany). League of 20 German princes, including 4 new kings - Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg and Westphalia(which was composed of Prussia and Hanover and had Nap's bro, Jerome, on throne).
Kingdom of Westphalia
Part of Confed. of Rhine, composed of Prussia and Hanover and other bits. Nap's younger bro. on throne of the this kingdom.
Kingdom of Italy
By 1810 this included Lombardy, Venetia and most of former Papal States. Nap retained title of king but set up stepson Eurene Beauharnais as viceroy. Made his uncle a cardinal (Fesch). Madame Mere (Nap's Mom) said "If only it lasts!"
"Nation of Shopkeepers"
Brit had "money power" throughout this period and alone of all European powers had stood up and not given in. Nap dubbed them with this name sneeringly and said that they fought with pounds sterling rather than blood. Therefore he chose to hit them where it would hurt - trade. (Continental System, but it backfired.)
In 1806, Nap issued these and by them prohibited importation of British goods into continental Europe. This included British goods brought in on neutral ships. He issued this right after defeating the Prussians at Jena and Auerstadt. Established CONTINENTAL SYSTEM.
"Order of/in Council of 1807"
Brit responded to Berlin Decrees with this by which it declared that neutral ships might enter Napoleonic ports ONLY if they were first stopped in Brit ports where the regulations encouraged the loading of Brit goodsl In effect this created a blockade of the continent. Consequent to that, there developed smuggling of Brit goods into Europe since there was already a very big demand for them and people did not want to forego Brit goods.
Milan Decrees in 1807
Nap responded to Order in Council and stated with these decrees that any neutral ship which stopped in Brit ports or submitted to a Brit search should be confiscated by the French if it then stopped in a French controlled harbor - which meant, effectively, anywhere on the continent.
In 1784 in Germany, there was an onset of a new age of German literature. In a book, Ideas on Philosophy of History of Mankind this German, protestant pastor and theologian expressed some of the new beliefs. He thought the French frivolous and believed that true culture must spring from native roots and from the volt/ people. Importance of national character was stressed - the volksgeist. Thought all peoples should develop own genius in their own way.
In the late 18th century this movement arose as a challenge to the dry abstraction of the Age of Reason. This new theory, heralded somewhat by Rousseau and Kant, was evident in the arts and literature and emphasized intuition, moods and feeling instead of rationalism.
National character or spirit of the people. Herder emphasized this. Said each nation different and that was OK. This notion spread with the spread of romanticism and was endorsed by it.
In Germany he organized a youth movement including political gymnastics/exercises. Held open-air expeditions. Taught suspicion of foreigners, Jews and Internationalists. Most Germans thought him too extreme.
Germany in its Deep Humiliation
An anonymous anti-French work. Publisher was put to death. Showed the rising nationalism in Germany. From 1800 onward there would be a significant German national awakening that was increasingly anti-French in origin and tone. It was also anti the rulers who had become "Frenchified". It was somewhat democratic in that it stressed the virtue of the common people.
German moral and metaphysical philosopher, professor of Univ. of Jena. Taught that "...inner spirit of individual creates own moral universe". Reflected in U.S. by the transcendental philosophy of Emerson. Initially is was pro French Revolution (as had been Jahn), because is was in favor of the liberation of the human spirit. Even accepted the Terror and was pro-Rousseau's idea of state as embodiment of the sovereign will of people. Saw state as a means of human salvation.
1808, Addresses to the German Nation
Fichte declared an ineradicable German spirit/national character that was MORE NOBLE THAN OTHER PEOPLE'S(goes beyond Herder). Said it should be kept pure form outside influence including French. French commander of the city ignored these addresses as too academic. Had little popular support though later would help make him a national hero.
1800, Closed Commercial State
Proposed a totalitarian system in which state planned and operated whole economy - shut off fromoutside and developing national character. When France conquered Germany, Fichte became intensely German - took over idea of volkgeist . Not just individual but nation creates own moral universe.
Army reformer, along with SCHARNHORST, from Saxony. Been in Hessian regiment in American War for Independence. Had observed military value of patriotism. Observed consequence of French Rev.. - said Prussia must encourage popular participation, through meritocracy, in army and govt. to prevent revolution in Prussia.
In Germany, recognized reconstruction of state as pre-requisite for reconstruction of army. He(and his successor, Hardenburg) set about this. Been Imperial Knight in HRE. Committed to philosophy of Kant and Fichte. Pro duty, moral character, etc. Developed less rigid class structure. Property interchangeable betw. classes, bourgeoisie allowed into officer class. Burgher-govt in cities. 1807, abolition of hereditary subjection of serfdom. 1810, peasant class could hold property. THIS VERY IMPORTANT BECAUSE ABOLITION MEANT FOUNDATION LAID FOR CREATION OF MODERN STATE AND MODERN ECONOMY (THOUGH PEASANTS WERE STILL HIRED LABORERS AND JUNKER CLASS WAS STILL STRONG).
Early 1800s in Germany, Moral and Scientific Union/League of Virtue/Manliness, whose members, by developing their own moral character, were to contribute to future of Germany. Helped to raise spirit of nationalism against Napoleon.
Battle of Borodino
Battle of, in 1812 between Napoleon's Grand Armee and Russian army. Near Moscow. Nap been drawn into interior of Russia by retreating Russian army which had "scorched earth" as it retreated. Nap therefore could not "live off the land" and had long supply lines. Russians outnumbered the French but French still won even tho' Nap refused to use his "Old Guard" at the height of the battle - therefore costly on his other troops, lost 30,000 of them. Russians withdrew through Moscow. When Nap got there, city burning. Alexander refused negotiations. Sept-Oct, Russian winter set in and Nap's army stranded. Victory here was therefore very costly.
Retreat from Moscow
1812, for over a century this remained the last word in military horror/disaster. Freezing conditions, starving troops, vehicles bogged down, equipment abandoned, discipline broke down. Grand Armee composed of different nationalities - different languages led to confusion. 611,000 troops hand entered Russia with Napoleon. Of these 400,000 died and 100,000 were taken prisoner. Grand Armee therefore disintegrated during this. Nap raced home to Paris in 13 days to try to salvage situation and raise a new army.
Battle of Leipzig
In October of 1813, in wake of Russian Campaign disaster the anti-Nap forces were encouraged to regroup. German patriots encouraged. Wellington's victories in peninsular campaign and British donation of 32 million pounds between 1813 and 1815 all added to courage of anti-Nap forces. Despite Nap's new army, they were able to defeat him at the Battle of the Nations/Leipzig in 1813. Drove Nap all the way back to France. But the allies then started distrusting each other.
Metternich proposed to Nap. Suggested he could stay emperor and France keep its frontier on the Rhine. Chance in late 1813 of peace. Russians were anxious to go home. Prussians could be compensated elsewhere, but Brits not satisfied - didn't want peace being made without them and didn't want France to keep Belgium, too much access to British coastline.
Brit Foreign Minister who went to Continent in Jan of 1814 to safeguard Brit interests. Nap had rejected the Frankfurt Proposals. Fighting continued. Cast. and Mett. both concerned with Russia's power. Had to hold alliance together so in March they negotiated the Treaty of Chaument which established Quadruple Alliance(Russia, Prussia, Austria and GB).
Austrian foreign minister who worked with Castlereagh. Also concerned with Russian power. Forceful and influential diplomat. An aristocrat who hated French Revolutionary ideals of equality, democratic govts. and national states. Admired Old Regime and absolute monarchy as well as multinational empire of Austria. Was a REACTIONARY.
After Nap's abdication he pushed for restoration of Louis XVIII - thought him to be the one who would arouse the least opposition. He went on to become Louis's minister. Amazing career - consummate politician/survivor - always managed to be on the winning side. European powers saw Louis XVIII as the least threat.
Was former Count of Provence and brother to both Louis XVI and Count of Artois. Next in line/oldest younger brother of unfortunate Bourbon who went to guillotine. Restored in 1814. Did grant VERY limited suffrage, legal equality and freedom of speech and press. So there was NOT a complete reversion to Old Regime in France. Louis XVIII was a sensible man but accompanied by return of swarm of vindictive emigres bent on "White Terror."
By the Treaty of Chaumont in March of 1814 this brought Russian, Prussia, Austria and GB together in alliance for 20 years vs. France and each agreed to provide troops to enforce the peace terms. It was the first really solid alliance of the Rev. and Nap. Wars. Three weeks later, their forces entered Paris and Napoleon abdicated at Fontainebleu.
Charter of 1814
Issued by Louis XVIII at the insistance(partly) of the liberal Tsar Alexander, but also because he HAD learned something in exile. Made NO concessions to popular sovereignty BUT would include legal equality, eligibility for public office without regard to class, and a parliamentary govt in two chambers. Recognized the Napoleonic Code, settlement with church and redistribution of property, abolition of feudalism, privileges, etc. BUT, very limited suffrage. France was now at peace.
"First" Treaty of Paris
May, 1814. Powers signed this with Bourbons. Set boundaries of 1792. No vengeance or indemnities to be paid. Napoleon was exiled to Elba. All other questions to be addressed at Congress of Vienna.
Between Sept of 1814 and 1815, the C of V met and dealt with this question, amongst many others. This was, however, a major issue. Alexander wanted reconstitution of the Polish Kingdom with himself as king but this meant Austria and Prussia would have to surrender their parts(from 3 partitions of Poland in late 1700s). Prussia was willing if it got Saxony in return. Metternich opposed because didn't want Prussia in Saxony - long border with Austria and feared increased Russian influence in eastern Europe. Metternich supported by Castlereagh who had similar concerns. Wanted more secure BoP. Talleyrand shrewdly arbitrated. Suggested in Jan of 1815 that there be a pact between GB, Fr. and Aust that they would go to war against Russia and Prussia if necessary. News of this was "leaked" and that was sufficient to force Alexander to compromise. He then agreed upon a Kingdom of Poland reduced in size. Prussia would only get part of Saxony and rest remained with Saxon king(who had been the last to abandon Napoleon).
Name given to reduced kingdom of Poland after the Polish-Saxon question settled. Alexander accepted this since he was a man of peace and due to pressure of France, GB and Austria. Lasted 15 years. Alexander was the constitutional king. Territory was same size as Duchy of Warsaw had been. Prussia also got some Rhenish territory(along Rhine). Thus center of gravity of both Prussia and Russia moving further to the west.
March 1st., 1815, while Congress of Vienna still on-going, Nap escaped from Elba and marched back toward Paris, raising an army as he went. French forces sent to stop him instead joined him. Had been increasing discontent with the restored Bourbon monarchy so Nap easily took over army and govt. Then marched northeast to Waterloo. Duke of Wellington won and Napoleon abdicated. Exiled to St. Helena in South Atlantic. Effect of 100 Days was to renew the European powers' dread of more revolutions, caused them to renew their commitment to the Quadruple Alliance, and agreed to more congresses to maintain the BoP.
Battle of Waterloo
Famous battle put end to Napoleon's Hundred Days. Nap defeated in June of 1815 by British under Duke of Wellington here in Belgium. A Prussian force under General Blucher arrived late in the day to tip the balance against Napoleon.
"Second" Treaty of Paris
After Waterloo. This was more severe than the first treaty since France seemed incorrigible and unrepentant - having accepted Nap back. There were some minor changes in the frontier, and indemnity of 700million francs was to be paid and an army of occupation was to be endured.
This was brainchild of Alexander I and involved the idea of an international order. He had been appalled by the return of Napoleon and was influenced by the pietistic Baroness von Krudener. He came up with proposal of a well-meaning but ineffectual alliance. By it the European powers were to pledge to rule by Christian principles of charity, peace and justice. All signed this EXCEPT Pope, Sultan, and Prince Regent of GB. Many thought it absurd to mix religion and politics. Actually, it came to be thought of as an UNholy alliance since hereditary rulers continued to rule their countries in repressive ways. It was, in reality, a dormant alliance. NOT to be confused with the Quadruple Alliance.