Chapter 7 Biology Vocabulary and key points

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Miller and Levine Biology Text Pearson

CYTOPLASM

fluid portion of the cell outside the nucleus

ORGANELLE

specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell

VACUOLE

cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

LYSOSOME

cell organelle that breaks down larger molecules such as lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules that the cell can use

CYTOSKELETON

network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement

CENTRIOLE

structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division

RIBOSOME

cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled

GOLGI APPARATUS

organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell

CHLOROPLAST

Chloroplasts capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.

MITOCHONDRION

cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

CELL WALL

strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells

LIPID BILAYER

flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings

SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE

property of biological membranes that allows some substances to pass across it while others cannot; also called semipermeable membrane

CELL

basic unit of all forms of life

CELL THEORY

fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; and that new cells are produced from existing cells

CELL MEMBRANE

thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell

NUCLEUS

in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA

EUKARYOTE

organism whose cells contain a nucleus

PROKARYOTE

unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus

DIFFUSION

process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels

AQUAPORIN

water channel protein in a cell

OSMOSIS

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

ISOTONIC

when the concentration of two solutions is the same

HYPERTONIC

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes

HYPOTONIC

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes

OSMOTIC PRESSURE

pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane

HOMEOSTASIS

relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain

TISSUE

group of similar cells that perform a particular function

ORGAN

group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions

ORGAN SYSTEM

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

RECEPTOR

on or in a cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone

HOW DO INDIVIDUAL CELLS MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS?

To maintain homestasis, unicelluar organisms grow, respond to the environment, transform energy, and reproduce.

HOW DO THE CELLS OF MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISMS WORK TOGETHER TO MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS?

The cells of multicellular organisms become specialized for particular tasks and communicate with one another to maintain homeostais.

WHAT IS CELL THEORY?

The Cell theory state that (1) all living things are made up of cells, (2) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and (3) new cells are produced from existing cells.

HOW DO MICROSCOPES WORK?

Most Microscopes use lenses to magnify the image of an object by focusing light or electrons.

HOW ARE PROKARYTONIC AND EUKARYPTIC CELLS DIFFERENT?

Prokarytonic cells do not separate their genetic material within the nucleus. In eukaryptic cells the nucleus separates the genetic material from the rest of the cell.

WHAT IS PASSIVE TRANSPORT?

Passive transport (includes diffusion and osmosis) is the movement of materials across the cell membranes without cellular energy

WHAT IS ACTIVE TRANSPORT?

The movement of materials against a concentration difference is known as active transport. Active transport requires energy.

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE CELL NUCLEUS?

The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and, with it, the coded instructions for making proteins and other molecules.

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF VACUOLES?

Valcuoles store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.

WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF LYSOSOMES?

Lysomes break large molecules into smaller ones that can be used by the cell. They are also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness.

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE CYTOSKELETON?

The cytoskelteon helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in movement.

WHAT ORGANELLES HELP MAKE AND TRANSPORT PROTEINS?

Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Proteins made on the rough ER include those that will be released from the cell as well as many membrane proteins and proteins destined for specialized locations within the cell. The Golgi apparatus then modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials for storage in the cell or release outside the cell.

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF CHLOROPLASTS?

Chloroplasts capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTION OF MITOCHRONDRIA?

Mitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANE?

The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and suppprts the cell.

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