It is through ____-____ initiatives that NU can bring about ____ ___.
It is through large-scale initiatives that NU can bring about systemic change.
The tools that new urbanists are using to improve the shape of our communities are ___ ____, ____ ___, and other ___-_____ _____ initiatives.
The tools that new urbanists are using to improve the shape of our communities are city plans, regional plans, and other multi-municipality planning initiatives.
All large-scale NU planning initiatives see the _____ _____ as a fundamental building block of the region, and they link _____ to ___-___ _____.
All large-scale NU planning initiatives see the walkable neighborhood as a fundamental building block of the region, and they link transportation to land-use patterns.
The nation's first regional plan was...
drawn up for the NY metro region by the Regional Plan Association (RPA) in 1929. They have done two more since.
Since RPA has not official standing, how does it have any authority?
It relies on well-connected members to exert influence on public policy.
The 2040 plan for Portland had its origins in a land use and transportation study sponsored by what group?
1000 Friends of Oregon.
The initiative was later taken over and implemented by Metro.
Envision Utah was the brainchild of what group?
The Coalition for Utah's Future, an org made up of civic, business and political leaders.
Architect Victor Dover defines a good building as...
"one that is seamlessly connected to its surroundings in a dignified way; one that's practical to walk up to; one that adds to the likelihood that people will be comfortable and will interact; and one that is a component of the larger enterprise of the street - adding to the sense of place, as opposed to being a stand-alone sculptural object."
New Urbanists began focusing on the region because...
a single building cannot make a place. It is too easily overcome by everything else on the street. If streets, blocks and neighborhoods are poorly connected and related, the effect of placemaking cannot be realized.
The Laws of the Indies were...
Instructions from the king of Spain on how to settle the new world.
Some of the first instances of regional thinking are..
Elizabethan greenbelts in London
The Laws of the Indies
Daniel Burnham's plan for Chicago (1909)
An example of bioregional thinking is..
the realization that the fate of the Florida Everglades is linked to the water and habitats far upstream, and downstream as well.
The Charter for the New Urbanism presents the region as what?
A fundamental economic unit of the contemporary world.
Farmland and nature are as important to the metropolis as the _____ is to the ____.
Farmland and nature are as important to the metropolis as the garden is to the house.
What is the basic unit of growth in the metropolitan region?
Orenco Station is a model for what?
Greenfield TOD on both a regional and national level.
Implementing a regional plan is usually hampered by...
the absence of a regional government that has the power to act on economic, social and physical planning issues simultaneously.
In order to be successful, a regional government should be able to do what?
Act on economic, social and physical planning issues simultaneously.
Since few municipalities are unwilling to give up control on land-use planning, the Quality Growth Strategy developed by Envision Utah deals not in dictates but in _____, ______ & _______.
Since few municipalities are unwilling to give up control on land-use planning, the Quality Growth Strategy developed by Envision Utah deals not in dictates but in recommendations, incentives and encouragement.
Just as regional planning guides where and how communities grow, it must also define what?
Where they should not grow.
Mapping of _____, ______ _____, and _____ _____ ___ is often the first order of business in the planning process.
Mapping of preserves, wildlife corridors and essential agricultural land is often the first order of business in the planning process.
One controversial means of open-space conservation is?
Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs). Some NUs think the opposite approach of drawing boundaries around rural areas creating a Rural Growth Boundary (RGB) is a better strategy.
"Rather than roping off urbanization, you designate what you wish to preserve, and then you focus on the quality of the urbanization." - Jeff Speck
Resource Management Areas
Strategy used by Sarasota County to preserve land and concentrate new development into compact communities.
This is perhaps the greatest achievement of recent regional planning initiatives.
The clarification of the link between land use and transportation.
Highways make ___ ____ possible and ____ constantly requires more highways.
Highways make suburban sprawl possible and sprawl constantly requires more highways.
A major challenge in transportation planning is...
the fact that land use is typically under local control and investment in transportation usually comes from the state or federal level.
The Urban Thoroughfares Manual by the Institute for Transportation Engineers and CNU has helped to...
broaden the definition of thoroughfares - replacing ubiquitous arterials with boulevards, avenues and main streets where appropriate.
What is the LEED-ND measure of an appropriately connected street network?
150 intersections per square mile
The conventional approach of walling off areas from this causes transportation problems.
In Calthorpe's Urban Network, neighborhood centers are how far apart?
Half a mile
Calthorpe One Way Couplets, San Elijo Hills in San Marcos California
Calthorpe Urban Network
One way streets are often tough environments for what?
Architect Kevin Klinkenberg suggests what modification to Calthorpe's Urban Network?
He argues that arterials should be positioned a half mile apart instead of a mile apart. This disperses traffic on smaller roads which fit better with neighborhoods. The finer grain encourages walking and bicycling and makes transit easier to reach.
Transect based codes generally encourage the establishment of what?
Town centers, neighborhoods, villages, and hamlets
The smart code governs at what three scales?
Sectors, Communities and Transects.
Sectors address preservation and development at the regional level and contain one or more community types.
Community types are constructed around transect zones, which set placement and form standards for buildings, streets, parks and other urban elements.
This is a term that is borrowed from study of the natural environment and is a geographical cross-section of a region.
The five-minute walk concept can be used in deciding where to institute what type of strategy for a shopping area and to identify where more density should be encouraged?
Park Once Strategy
The Cool Spots method, created by Criterion Partners, uses regional data to determine where what are the highest?
According to Elliot Allen of Criterion, driving can be reduced by how much through physical location and characteristics of place?
Eight tips for coherent regions
- Pulse the Development & Limit the Extension of Infrastructure; Use key intersections to create walkable centers.
- Focus reinvestment in existing centers
- Encourage local govts to get together to improve corridors
- Ask how we can use investment in transit to improve livable communities
- Organize citizen workshops where citizens grapple with large-scale planning issues (ex. Envision Utah)
- Conduct an unbiased, region-wide study of market demand for housing.
- Advocate regional tax-base sharing
- Advocate for growth management at the state level.
- Don't forget that when planning streets, there are many things you have to get right