Heat transfer process that depends upon the movement of air.
Objects that selectively absorb and emit radiation
Rising bubbles of air
The heat we can feel and measure with a thermometer
The horizontal transfer of any atmospheric property by the wind
Energy transferred by electromagnetic waves
One millionth of a meter
A measure of the average speed of air molecules
The horizontal distance between two wave crests
This is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds
The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact
The sun emits radiation with greatest intensity in this region of the spectrum
A temperature scale where O degrees represents freezing and 100 boiling
Wavelengths longer than those of red light
Visible light given off by excited atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere
Electromagnetic waves whose wavelengths are shorter than those of visible light
Temperature scale that begins at absolute zero
Charged particles traveling through space
Energy of motion is also known as______.
Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be_____
A perfect absorber and a perfect emitter of radiation is called_____ ______
How much radiation would an object be emitting if its temperature were at absolute zero?
The _____ represents the reflectivity of a surface.
The two most significant atmospheric greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere are _____ and______.
water vapor and carbon dioxide
At night objects on the ground cool by the process of emitting_____.
The combined albedo of the earth and its atmosphere average about_____ percent.
The earth emits maximum radiation in the _____ portion of the spectrum, while the sun emits maximum radiation at _____ wavelengths.
If the present concentration of CO2 doubles, climatic models predict that for the earth's average temperature to rise by as much as 4.5 degrees, the gas_____ _____ must also increase in concentration.
The wavelength range where neither water vapor nor carbon dioxide absorbs much of the earth's infrared radiation is known as the atmospheric_____.
Air that sinks, warms by_____
The temperature at which the earth is both absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates is called the Earth's _____ _____ _____
radiative equilibrium temperature
In the Northern Hemisphere another name for the northern lights is the_____.
Sunlight deflected in all directions after striking very small objects is said to be_____.
The sky is blue due to the ____ of the shorter wavelengths of visible light.
As the average speed of air molecules decreases, the temperature of the air:
The proper order of waves from longest to shortest is:
infrared, visible, ultraviolet
Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from:
hot objects to cold objects
The rate at which radiant energy is emitted by a body:
increases with increasing temperature
If the earth had no atmosphereic greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:
lower than at present
If the earth's average surface temperature should increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface will_____, and the wavelength of maximum emission will shift toward_____ wavelengths
the moon's surface can only cool by (hint: the moon has no atmosphere):
The earth's atmospheric green house effect is produced mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide absorbing and emitting:
The albedo or the moon is 7 percent. This means that:
7 percent of the sunlight that strikes the moon is reflected
Clear, calm night are usually cooler than cloudy, calm nights because:
clouds absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation back to the earth's surface
Which of the gases below is not believed responsible for enhancing the earth's atmospheric greenhouse effect?
molecular nitrogen (N2)
The law that states that good absorbers of radiation are good emitters of radiation at a particular wavelength:
Annually, polar regions lose more heat energy than they receive, yet they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year mainly by the:
conduction of heat through the interior of the earth
If the average surface temperature of the earth should increase, the amount of raiant energy emitted from the surface would:
The sun's radiation is also referred to a shortwave radiation
Clouds are poor absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation
Only selective absorbers in the atmosphere emit radiation.
A degree Fahrenheit is larger than a degree Celsius.
On the average, about 50% of the solar radiation that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface.
An utraviolet photon carries more energy than an infrared photon
Air is a poor conductor of heat
The earth's atmosphere behaves as a black body.
On the average, each year the earth-atmosphere system sends off into space just as much energy as it receives.
Sinking air always warms and rising air always cools.
On the average, 75 percent of the sunlight that strikes water daily is reflected.
Energy is the ability or capacity to do work.
An increase in cloud cover around the earth would probably increase the albedo of the earth-atmosphere system.
Air glow is another name for the aurora.
The process of condensation, freezing, and deposition all release sensible heat in the environment.
An air temperature of 0 degrees K would be the same as an air temperature of 0 degrees C.
In direct sunlight, an object with a high albedo appears darker than an object with a low albedo.
The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is lower than the earth's observed average surface temperature.
UVB radiation is more likely to cause a sunburn than is UVA radiation.