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Questions from the Workbook and Study Guide Meterorology Today, 8th edition

Heat transfer process that depends upon the movement of air.

convection

Objects that selectively absorb and emit radiation

selective absorber

Rising bubbles of air

thermals

The heat we can feel and measure with a thermometer

sensible heat

The horizontal transfer of any atmospheric property by the wind

advection

Energy transferred by electromagnetic waves

radiation

One millionth of a meter

micrometer

A measure of the average speed of air molecules

temperature

The horizontal distance between two wave crests

wavelength

This is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds

latent heat

The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact

conduction

The sun emits radiation with greatest intensity in this region of the spectrum

visible

A temperature scale where O degrees represents freezing and 100 boiling

Celsius

Wavelengths longer than those of red light

infrared

Visible light given off by excited atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere

aurora

Electromagnetic waves whose wavelengths are shorter than those of visible light

ultraviolet

Temperature scale that begins at absolute zero

Kelvin

Charged particles traveling through space

solar wind

Energy of motion is also known as______.

kinetic energy

Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be_____

reflective

A perfect absorber and a perfect emitter of radiation is called_____ ______

black body

How much radiation would an object be emitting if its temperature were at absolute zero?

none

The _____ represents the reflectivity of a surface.

albedo

The two most significant atmospheric greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere are _____ and______.

water vapor and carbon dioxide

At night objects on the ground cool by the process of emitting_____.

infrared radiation

The combined albedo of the earth and its atmosphere average about_____ percent.

30

The earth emits maximum radiation in the _____ portion of the spectrum, while the sun emits maximum radiation at _____ wavelengths.

infrared, visible

If the present concentration of CO2 doubles, climatic models predict that for the earth's average temperature to rise by as much as 4.5 degrees, the gas_____ _____ must also increase in concentration.

water vaper

The wavelength range where neither water vapor nor carbon dioxide absorbs much of the earth's infrared radiation is known as the atmospheric_____.

window

Air that sinks, warms by_____

compression

The temperature at which the earth is both absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates is called the Earth's _____ _____ _____

radiative equilibrium temperature

In the Northern Hemisphere another name for the northern lights is the_____.

aurora borealis

Sunlight deflected in all directions after striking very small objects is said to be_____.

scattered

The sky is blue due to the ____ of the shorter wavelengths of visible light.

scattering

As the average speed of air molecules decreases, the temperature of the air:

decreases

The proper order of waves from longest to shortest is:

infrared, visible, ultraviolet

Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from:

hot objects to cold objects

The rate at which radiant energy is emitted by a body:

increases with increasing temperature

If the earth had no atmosphereic greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:

lower than at present

If the earth's average surface temperature should increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface will_____, and the wavelength of maximum emission will shift toward_____ wavelengths

increase, shorter

the moon's surface can only cool by (hint: the moon has no atmosphere):

radiation

The earth's atmospheric green house effect is produced mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide absorbing and emitting:

infrared radiation

The albedo or the moon is 7 percent. This means that:

7 percent of the sunlight that strikes the moon is reflected

Clear, calm night are usually cooler than cloudy, calm nights because:

clouds absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation back to the earth's surface

Which of the gases below is not believed responsible for enhancing the earth's atmospheric greenhouse effect?

molecular nitrogen (N2)

The law that states that good absorbers of radiation are good emitters of radiation at a particular wavelength:

Kirchoff's law

Annually, polar regions lose more heat energy than they receive, yet they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year mainly by the:

conduction of heat through the interior of the earth

If the average surface temperature of the earth should increase, the amount of raiant energy emitted from the surface would:

increase

The sun's radiation is also referred to a shortwave radiation

True

Clouds are poor absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation

False

Only selective absorbers in the atmosphere emit radiation.

False

A degree Fahrenheit is larger than a degree Celsius.

True

On the average, about 50% of the solar radiation that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface.

True

An utraviolet photon carries more energy than an infrared photon

True

Air is a poor conductor of heat

True

The earth's atmosphere behaves as a black body.

False

On the average, each year the earth-atmosphere system sends off into space just as much energy as it receives.

True

Sinking air always warms and rising air always cools.

True

On the average, 75 percent of the sunlight that strikes water daily is reflected.

False

Energy is the ability or capacity to do work.

True

An increase in cloud cover around the earth would probably increase the albedo of the earth-atmosphere system.

True

Air glow is another name for the aurora.

False

The process of condensation, freezing, and deposition all release sensible heat in the environment.

True

An air temperature of 0 degrees K would be the same as an air temperature of 0 degrees C.

False

In direct sunlight, an object with a high albedo appears darker than an object with a low albedo.

False

The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is lower than the earth's observed average surface temperature.

True

UVB radiation is more likely to cause a sunburn than is UVA radiation.

True

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