A distinctive social sphere, a common culture that results when people share particular outlooks, orientations and experiences
The interactive management, policing and contestation of boundaries that define a social world
"Doing Family" by Nancy Naples
Family as a social construction
Family as a taken-for-granted reality
Family as social control
Features of the ideal family
Traditional image of suburban neighborhood
Draws from a normative order perpetuated by institutions to help make sense of contradiction and troubled feelings
Reproducing the institutions
Thereby generating a new generation of workers who would support the humane society model and the kind of human-animal relationship in which people could believe they were killing with a conscience
Emotion management strategies
Transforming shelter animals into virtual pets
Using the animal
Resisting and avoiding euthanasia
Using the owner
Dealing with others
Creating a sense of "we-ness"
*Comes from "Managing Emotions in an Animal Shelter" by Arnold Arluke
"The Contrasting Agendas of Black and White Sororities" by Berkowitz & Padavic
Black are career/service oriented and relationships last longer after college
White are relationship oriented
Every interaction has a history regarding race being important to understand the microsociological underpinnings of social institutions
Schematic of interpretation which enable people to locate, perceive, identify and label "occurrences of information"
Framing racial histories
Historical scripts that give meaning to everyday practices
"Each sorority member actively contributes to the group's ideology according to her own historical frame of reference, and thus sorority culture is produced and reproduced"
Blacks needed to be more financially stable to support their husbands; whites needed to be supported by men
Most social psych concepts aren't universal, even if they pretend to be
Concepts that are universal tend to theorize the experiences of a "center" rather than those on the margins
An "other" is often constructed in order to stabilize dominant categories
Those who are in structural positions of power are likely to create and disseminate favorable definitions of themselves and less favorable definitions of others
Attending to border work
Critiquing the "contact hypothesis"
More contact = less prejudice
"The Black Male in Public" by Elijah Anderson
Draws on Goffmanian performance theories
Expectation states theory
"Borderwork Among Boys and Girls" by Barrie Thorne
"Interaction across--yet interaction based on and even strengthening--gender boundaries"
Modifying the "contact hypothesis" (Although contact sometimes undermines and reduces an active sense of difference, group may also interact with one another in ways that strengthen their borders)
Emphasis on "work"
Frames of gendered play
Cooties and other pollution rituals
Emphasis on gender as an oppositional dualism
Exaggeration of gender differences and disregard for the presence of crosscutting variations and sources of commonality
Particular frames of play are conspicuously similar to adult border work and the interaction maintenance of privilege
Taken from "White Means Never Having to Say You're Ethnic" by Pamela Perry
White has culture, but it's borrowed from others
Perry cares less about whether there is not a white culture than about the power whites exercise when claiming they have no culture
Valley Groves High
Whiteness culture is ubiquitous and self-confirming
No ties to their racial/ethnic histories and no language to articulate white culture
The embedding of historically constituted cultural practices in that which is taken for granted and seems "normal" and "natural"
Clavey High School
Opposition of "rational" and "cultural" when white culture can't be taken for granted
Active border work rather than passive construction of whites as "cultureless"
The embedding of whiteness within a Western rational epistemology and value paradigm that marginalizes or subordinates all things "cultural"
Social class and identity
Ideology of meritocracy
Culture of poverty
Structural explanations for social class
Class as a practical accomplishment
Ideology of meritocracy
Explains why some people aren't able to achieve things like the American dream
Culture of poverty
Looks at individuals and not social structural obstacles
Blames those in poverty for not achieving merit
Pierre Bourdieu's types of capital
Unconscious enacted set of learned dispositions and tastes, not natural to a class position, but produced by it
"Borderwork Between Classes" by Julie Bettie
Considers how Mexican-American and White working class girls perform upward mobility and the border work required to be successful
Reminds us that class identity is malleable, but that structured forces make exception unlikely
Imperfection of upward class mobility
Lack of a class discourse
Performance vs. Performativity
Goffman vs. Butler
Performative-the girls were in the process of acquiring cultural capital and a middle class habitus and displaying that outside of a conscious choice to pass
Ways in which collectives of people remember similar events, contests those memories and use those memories to construct particular kinds of collective identity in the present
Process of constructing culture, identity and history
Often times an issue of power
Is not perfect; but a reconstruction of the past
Tends to be selective based on what is culturally relevant
Many are shared between collectives of people
Involves the active construction of the past through the present AND present through the past
Process tends to be legitimately prevailing values and ways of life
Can result in a "battle" over how we remember collective events
Problem: How do you commemorate the sacrifice of soldiers without agreeing with the cause of war?
Searching for a genre
From "Commemorating America's Involvement in Vietnam" by Wagner-Pacifici and Schwartz
"Not necessarily something the individual feels. It is a social fact, an outcome of the incompatible commemorative viewpoints that were held and the measures that were taken by different constituencies...express contradictions."
Inconspicuous plague at Arlington Cemetery
Vietnam Veterans Week
Controversy over nontraditional design
Modification of original with traditional
Public's interaction with the memorial
The "modern condition" suggested that there was a certainty to reality-an objective sense-that we could come to understand, control and change through the development of human civilization
Suggests that reality is fractured through a variety of societal transformation (global, economic, technological, etc.)
Postmodernism and language
Vocabularies of the self
Modernist (I think, therefore, I am)
Postmodern (Does this self exist at all?)
*Both Gergen and Gubrium/Holstein say the self is fragmented
"The Dissolution of Self" by Gergen
Populating the self
"Through the technologies of the century, the number and variety of relationships in which are engaged, potential frequency of contact, expressed intensity of relationships, and endurance through time are all steadily increasing."
Populating the self
"Acquisition of multiple and disparate potentials for being."
"Splitting of the individual into a multiplicity of self investments."
Time and space is a condition
"Self in a World of Going Concerns" by Gubrium and Holstein
Disagree with Gergen-The postmodern condition does not put the self under erasure; rather, it increases the number and intensity of social situations where self construction is a primary concern
The self is the primary "going concern" of many social institutions
Going Concerns (Everett Hughes)-"relatively stable, routinized, ongoing patterns of action and interaction." (often times tied to institutions)
Returns to the "social self"
Suggest we study these "discursive environments" that set the conditions of possibility for self construction