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Vocab copied from the textbook Abnormal Psychology 6 th edition by Halgin and Whitbourne

Agnosia

The inability to recognize familiar objects or experiences, despite the ability to perceive their basic elements.

Wernicke's aphasia

A form of aphasia in which the individual is able to produce language but has lost the ability to comprehend, so that these verbal productions have no meaning.

Vascular dementia

A form of dementia resulting from a vascular disease that causes deprivation of the blood supply to the brain.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Damage to the brain caused by exposure to trauma.

Tau

A protein that normally helps maintain the internal support structure of the axons.

Substance- induced persisting dementia

A form of dementia caused by the ingestion of substances, such as drugs, or exposure to toxins.

Substance-induced persisting amnestic disorder

An amnestic disorder caused by drugs or environmental toxins.

Pseudodementia

Literally, false dementia, or a set of symptoms caused by depression that mimic those apparent in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

Post-concussion syndrome

A disorder in which a constellation of physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms persists from weeks to years.

Pick's disease

A relatively rare degenerative disease that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex and that can cause dementia.

Parkinson's disease

A disease that can cause dementia and that involves the degeneration of neurons in the subcortical structures that control motor movements.

Akinesia

A motor disturbance in which a person's muscles become rigid and movement is difficult to initiate.

Neurofibrillary tangles

A characteristic of Alzheimer's disease in which the material within the cell bodies of neurons becomes filled with densely packed, twisted protein microfibrils, or tiny strands.

Lewy body dementia

A form of dementia similar to Alzheimer's disease, with progressive loss of memory, language, calculation, and reasoning, as well as other higher mental functions.

Huntington's disease

A hereditary condition causing dementia that involves a widespread deterioration of the subcortical brain structures and parts of the frontal cortex that control motor movements.

Frontotemporal dementia

Dementia that involves the frontotemporal area of the brain.

Executive functioning

Cognitive abilities such as abstract thinking, planning, organizing, and carrying out of behaviors.

Caregiver burden

The adverse effects on caregivers from the constant demands placed on them by their role.

Caregivers

The people (usually family members) primarily responsible for caring for a person with a chronic disease, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Caspase theory of Alzheimer's disease

The proposal that beta amyloid stimulates substances called caspases, which become enzymes that destroy neurons.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

A neurological disease transmitted from animals to humans that leads to dementia and death resulting from abnormal protein accumulations in the brain.

Delirium

A temporary state in which individuals experience a clouding of consciousness in which they are unaware of what is happening around them and are unable to focus or pay attention.

Dementia

A form of cognitive impairment involving generalized progressive deficits in a person's memory and learning of new information, ability to communicate, judgment, and motor coordination.

Alzheimer's disease

A form of dementia characterized by progressive and gradual cognitive deficits due to severe cerebral atrophy.

Amnestic disorders

Cognitive disorders involving the inability to recall previously learned information or to register new memories.

Amyloid cascade hypothesis

The proposal that Alzheimer's disease results from the snipping of beta amyloid when it is being manufactured in the neuron.

Amyloid plaques

A characteristic of Alzheimer's disease in which clusters of dead or dying neurons become mixed together with fragments of protein molecules.

Aphasia

A loss of the ability to use language.

Apraxia

A loss of the ability to carry out coordinated bodily movements that the individual could previously perform without difficulty.

Bradykinesia

A motor disturbance involving a general slowing of motor activity.

Broca's aphasia

A form of aphasia that involves a disturbance in language production but intact comprehension abilities.

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