Chapter 7 kinetic molecular theory explains the characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases.
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laks on November 27, 2010
The set of questions below will ask you the bolded terms and reading check of Chapter 7- Kinetic molecular theory explains the characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases.
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|Matter||Is anything that has mass and volume.|
|Mass|| Is the quantity of matter|
that a substance or object contains
|Volume||Is the amount of space taken up by a substance or object|
|Kinetic energy||Is the energy of motion. All particles in every solid, liquid, and gas are always moving, so they have kinetic energy.|
|kinetic molecular theory||To explain what happens to matter when the kinetic energy of particles changes|
|Thermal expansion.||It increases in volume. In general, any kind of matter expands when its temperature increases.|
|Thermal contraction.|| The movement of the particles slows down, which means|
the particles take up less space as they lose energy, or in other words, decreases in volume.
|Thermal energy||The kinetic energy of all the particles of a substance, the total amount of energy.|
|Heat||Is the energy transferred from one material or object to another as a result of a difference in temperature or a change in state.|
|Temperature||The average kinetic energy of its particles.|
|Melting||Is the change of state of a substance from a solid form to a liquid form|
|Evaporation||Is the change of state of a substance from liquid form to gas form.|
|Condensation||Is the change of state of a substance from gas form to liquid form|
|Solidification|| Is the change of state of a substance|
from liquid form to solid form.
|Sublimation||Is the change of state of a substance directly from a solid form to a gas form.|
|Deposition.||The opposite of sublimation. Is when frost forms on windows on very cold days.|
|Melting|| Is the temperature at which a solid|
turns to liquid
|Boiling point||Is the temperature at which a liquid turns to gas.|
|Solid lead|| Particles are very close to one|
another, fixed in position, and vibrate.
|Melting lead||Particles vibrate more, collide with each other, and make more space between them.|
|Liquid lead|| All particles are still close, but|
now have enough space to slide
past one another.
|Boiling lead|| Highly energetic particles bounce|
vigorously against each other, creating more space
|Gaseous lead.|| All particles are highly energetic|
and move freely to spread out in
|How is a solid different from a liquid in shape and volume?||They are different because the particles in a solid are packed together tightly and it cant move around much, particles in a liquid in shape and volume is different because The particles in a liquid|
are in contact with each other, but they can slip and slide past one another, changing their position.
|How are liquids and gases similar in shape and volume?||They are similar because both states shapes are determined by their surrounding. For the volume it is similar because gases always spread out or diffuse in their container and liquids take the shape of their container and this can effects what kind of volume they have.|
|How are liquids and gases different in the amount of space between particles?|| Thy are different in the amount of space between particles because The particles in a liquid are in contact with each other, but they can slip and slide past one another, changing their position, but gas particles have very|
large spaces between them. In fact, gases are mostly empty space.
|How does the behavior of particles change as energy is added to them? How does the behavior change as energy is lost?||When energy is added to the particles the faster they can move and the farther apart they can get. When the energy is lost all the particles move slowly around each other, but they never stop moving, they just move slowly.|
|How does the space between particles change as energy is added to them? How does the space change as energy is lost?||When energy is added to them the space between the particles gets wider and farther apart and when the energy is lost all the particles come back together, having less space to move around each other.|
|What is the difference between a model and a theory?||A model is a way to think about and interpret natural events and objects, a theory is a scientific explanation based on the results of experimentation.|
|What happens to matter when its temperature increases?||its particles move around faster. Each particle moves over a larger region, which results in more space between particles.The material that is made up of the particles expands. In other words, it increases in volume.|
|What happens to matter when its temperature decreases?||The movement of the particles slows down, which means the particles take up less space as they lose energy. The matter contracts, or in other words, decreases in volume.|
|What is the difference between heat and temperature?||Heat is the energy transferred from one material or object to another. Temperature is the average kinetic energy of its particles.|
|How does matter change from one state to another?||Matter is changed when temperature is increased and decreased.|
|What is the relationship between the amount of space between particles and the state of the matter?||When the temperature of a solid is raised, the particles become more energetic and that makes a solid to expand and the space between the particles get bigger and they move father apart.|
|What is the difference between evaporation and sublimation?||The difference is that evaporation is the change of state of a substance from liquid form to gas form. Sublimation is the change of state of a substance directly from a solid form to a gas form.|
|How is melting similar to solidification? How is it different?||It is similar because both states have something to do with a solid because in melting it turns a solid into a liquid, and it solidification it turns a liquid into a solid.|
|Fluid||Is any form of matter that can flow.|
|Density||Is the mass of a given volume. In other words, density describes how closely packed together the particles are in a material.|
|Displacement|| Is the amount of space that an object takes up|
when placed in a fluid.
|Explain why gases and liquids are called fluids, but solids are not?||Fluid is a form that can flow, solids have a fixed shape and cannot flow. Therefore solids are not considered fluid.|
|What happens to the density of matter when the matter is heated?||The particles will take up more space, which means that the density of the substance decreases.|
|Why does ice float on water?|| When water freezes, the particles move slightly farther apart as they become fixed in position. This|
means that ice is actually less dense than liquid water, so it floats
|Why does water float on corn syrup?||The less dense liquid floats on the denser liquid if the two liquids do not mix together. Even though the two liquids are of the same volume, the corn syrup has more mass, and therefore it has a greater density than the water.|
|How is a breeze created over land on a hot summer day?||When air is heated near the ground on a hot summer day, the particles gain energy and move farther apart. The warm air has a lower density than the air around it, and as a result, it begins to rise. As the warm air rises, cooler air rushes in beneath it, and a breeze is created.|
|Why is there more oxygen available to breathe at sea level than there is higher in the atmosphere?||If we increase our altitude, we encounter areas of lower air density. The higher we go, the farther apart the air particles are spread out, making it harder for us to get enough oxygen particles into our lungs with every breath.|
|How can you find the volume of a rectangular solid?|| you can find the volume of a rectangular solid by using the equation:|
volume = length x width x height.
|How can you find the volume of an irregularly shaped solid?|| The amount of water you are displacing is the volume of your body that is in the water. So by|
measuring the displacement of an object, you can measure the volume of the object.
|What two measurements do you need in order to calculate density?||Mass and its volume. The density of fluids is usually measured in g/mL, while the density of solids is usually measured in g/cm3 (1 mL has the same volume as 1 cm3).|
|What is the volume of a rectangular box that is 10 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 2 cm high?||1000cm2 is the volume of a rectangular box.|