## Chapter 8- Earthquakes

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rcr1970 Plus on November 28, 2010

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# Chapter 8- Earthquakes

 vibrationsthese from earthquakes last about 45 seconds to one minute for larger earthquakes and jsut a few seconds for smaller earthquakes.
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#### Definitions

vibrations these from earthquakes last about 45 seconds to one minute for larger earthquakes and jsut a few seconds for smaller earthquakes.
pacific ocean 80% of all earthquakes occur near this ocean
faults most earthquakes occur along these
continental plates are constantly moving from forces deep inside the Earth
focus this is a spot on a earthquake fault that moves
epicenter thsi is the place on the Earth's surface directly above the earthquake focus.
shallow these earthquakes occur above 70 km
intermediate these earthquakes occur from 70 km to 300 km
deep these earthquakes occur belwo 300 km.
EARTHQUAKE The violent motion of the ground caused by the passage of seismic waves radiating from a fault along which sudden movement has taken place.
SEISMOGRAPHS An instrument for magnifying and recording the motions of the Earth's surface that are caused by seismic waves.
PWAVE The primary or fastest wave traveling away from a seismic event through the solid rock and consisting of a train of compressions and dilations of the material.
SWAVE The secondary seismic wave, which travels more slowly than the P wave and consists of elastic vibrations transverse to the direction of travel. S waves cannot penetrate a liquid.
SURFACE A seismic wave that follows the Earth's surface only, with a speed less than that of S waves. (also known as seismic ______ wave)
AMPLITUDE this is the comparing of the distance from the earthquake to the amount of ground movement ( hint: greatness of extent; magnitude)
RICHTER SCALE This scale assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. It is a base-10 scale and measures the amount of shaking amplitude
MAGNITUDE A measure of earthquake size, determined by taking the common logarithm (base 10) of the largest ground motion observed during the arrival of a P wave or seismic surface wave and applying a standard correction for distance to the epicenter.
EIGHT This is the number of earthquakes per year that are the greatest earthquakes
EIGHTEEN this is the number of earthquakes per year that are major earthquakes
TRIANGULATION this is needed to located the position of the earthquake on the Earth. (hint: word combines three terms as one)
RICHTER this scale compares ground movement over distance.
LARGE This type of earthquake may cause the ground to move up and down several feet.
DISTANCE by compring time difference between S waves, P waves and Surface waves it is possible to calculate _________ to the earthquake.
DENSE The Earth's surface rocks are not as ________ as the interior rocks and so surface wavs are the slowest of all --90% of S waves.
SURFACE these waves have large and complex ground motions and cause most of the damage.
SPEED P waves and S waves will travel at different ________.
Faster P waves are _______ than S waves
NEW MADRID The largest area of earthquake movement and damage in recent history occurred in a town called ________.
Three _______ magnitude of 7.5 or great occurred in New Madrid in 1811 and early 1812.
All _______ of the U. S. east of The Rocky Mountains felt the earthquake from the Southwest Missouri earthquakes in 1811 and 1812.
SAN FRANSICO The earthquake of 1906 in ______________ was actually 1/20 in size of the 1811 and 1812 earthquakes in New Madrid yet they all had about the same amount of damage.
SAN ANDREAS This fault zone in California is an a active zone that is fractured and broken.
SHALLOW This depth of earthquakes is absorbed quickly and damage is restricted to a smaller area.
DEEPER The New Madrid Fault zone is __________ and energy travels at greater distances because the rock is so dense.
RIFT ZONE 500 million years ago the United States tried to spilt apart in a _______ _______.
REELFOOT RIFT This is a rift zone in the Red Sea and is called _______ ____.
LIQUEFACTION a process by which saturated, unconsolidated sediments are transformed into a substance that acts like a liquid and can be caused by earthquakes when loosely packed, water-logged sediments come loose from the intense shaking of the earthquake.
SECONDARY these types of effects of earthquakes are actually the most deadliest more types of damage occurs.
tsunamis earthquakes can cause fires, landslides and _________.
fires The San Fransico earthquake in 1906 caused less deaths than did _______.
INDONESIAN In 2004, more people died from the Great _______ earthquake that resulted in almost 250,000 people dying from a tsunami.
MOHO a boundary between the crust and mantle.
LITHOSPHERE consists of the crust and the hard uppermost mantle.
FIVE the Earth can be divided into _______ major parts.
ASTHENOSPHERE this is a hot, almost molten layer of the Earth called _______ and is under the 250 km thick lithosphere. This layer is mobile and is detached from the lithosphere. (hint: peanut butter)
LOWER MANTLE This layer is under the asthenosphere and is 2,240 km thick. It has solid rock.
Moves when the astenosphere ______ the lithosphere on top moves with it.
OUTER CORE below the mantle is the ______ ______. It is molten iron-nickel alloy. It spins and generates our MAGNETIC FIELD.
SEISMOLOGY Seismology is the study of earthquakes and seismic waves that move through and around the earth. It also ADDS to our understanding of the Earth's interior.
PLATE TECTONICS The theory and study of plate formation, movement, interactions, and destruction; the attempt to explain seismicity, volcanism, mountain building, and evidence of paleomagnetism in terms of plate motions.

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26.1 secs by rcr1970 Plus