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Cognitive psychologists

what they study
-cognition refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and communicating
-thinking involves a number of mental activities such as concepts, problem solving, decision making, and judgement formation

Concept

-a mental grouping of similar objects, events or people
-we form some concepts with definitions [a triangle has three sides]
-we mostly form concepts with mental images or typical examples

Prototype

-a typical example used to form a concept [a robin, not a penguin is a prototype for a bird]
-a best example of a category of objects, events, or people

Algorithm

-very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. computers use these.
-a methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems

Heuristics

-make it easier for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems
-simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgements efficiently

Insight

-pine, crab, sauce.. add apple

Fixation

-an inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. this impedes problem solving

Functional Fixedness

-an example of fixation

Representativeness Heuristic

- who is more likely to read poetry? the college professor or the truck driver?
-refers to our tendency to judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype

Availability Heuristic

-refers to our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered
-cities of ugly/fat, pretty people?

Overconfidence

-refers to the tendency to underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgements are erroneous

Framing Effect

-decisions and judgements may be significantly affected depending upon how an issue is framed

Belief Persistance

-explanations we develop to explain our experiences become fixed beliefs, even when they are shown to be based on wrong evidence
-encouraging people to explain why their own personal views on an issue are correct is most likely to promote belief perseverance

Intelligence

-the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations
-whatever the intelligence test measures "school smarts"

Alfret Binet and Theodore Simon

-practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing by devoloping questions that would predict children's future progress

Mental Age

-

Lewis Terman

-adapted Binet's test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test

William Stern

-created the Intelligence Quotent [IQ] formula

mental age
IQ= --------- X 100
chronological age

Intelligence Test

-tells a persons 'mental age'

David Wechsler

-developed WAIS and WISC for school-aged children

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale [WAIS]

-measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence designed to assess clinical and educational problems

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC]

-

Normal Curve [bell curve]

-standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern
-mentally retarded are 70 and high intelligence is 135

C. Spearman

-proposed the idea that intelligent behavior is generated by a single, unitary quality within the human mind or brain

General Intelligence or g Factor

-spearman called general intelligence this
-factor analysis demonstrated that cores on all mental tests are positively correlated

Howard Gardner

-supports the idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms. he notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others.

Multiple Forms of Intelligence

-verbal
-mathematical
-spatial
-bodily-kinesthetic
-musical
-interpersonal
-intrapersonal
-naturalist

Savant Syndrome

-a developmental disability and a spectacular, genius-level skill in a specific area

Robert Sternberg

-a professor at Yale and the author of Successful Intelligence
-"the concept of successful intelligence contrasts with the more narrow academic intelligence measured by IQ tests and other standardized examinations"

Triarchic Theory

analytical, creative and practical intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

components
A. perceive emotion- recognize emotions in faces, music, and stories

B. understand emotion- predict emotions, how they change and blend

C. manage emotion- how to express emotions in different situations

D. use emotion- utilize emotions to adapt or be creative

Motivation

-a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal

Theories of motivation

a) instinct theory [instincts] and evolutionary psychology

b) drive reduction theory; need, drive, incentive

c) optimum arousal

d) hierarchy of motives; Abraham Maslow, Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology

-instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned
-since darwin, human behaviors have been classified as instincts. but, instincts dont explain the 'why?' of human behavior

Drive Reduction Theory

-a physiological need creates an aroused tension state [a psychological drive] that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
-an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a drive.
-incentives [external] are positive or negative environmental stimuli that motivate our behavior
-push of needs [hunger pushes us to food]
-pull of incentives [buy one get one free pulls to a restaurant]

Optimum Arousal

-human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive
1) we are motivated to do more than just satisfy our biological needs
2) we are driven to experience stimulation, bypass boredom and obtain optimum arousal

Hierarchy of Motives

-Self actualization needs
need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential

-esteem needs
need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others

-belongingness and love needs
need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation

-safety needs
need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable

-physiological needs
need to satisfy hunger and thirst

Abraham Maslow

-suggested that certain needs have priority over others
-physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition

Washburn's study on the physiology of hunger

-stomach contractions [pangs] send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger

-washburn swallows balloon, which measures stomach contractions then washburn presses key each time he feels hungry

-hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed

Ghrelin

-the hormone responsible for making you want to eat more

Taste Preference

serotonin- the level in the brain is increased by a diet high in carbohydrates

carbohydrates- consumption of these are most likely to reduce tension and anxiety

universal for sweets

Novel foods

-eating these increases our desire for more: psychologically the door opens for more novel food options

Anorexia Nervosia

-a condition in which a normal weight person [usually an adolescent woman] continuously loses weight but still feels overwieght

Bulima Nervosa

- a disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, using laxatives, fasting, or excessive exercise

The Basic Components of Emotion

expressive behaviors- what are you going to say and do?

physiological arousal- what is your heart doing, your breathing, adrenaline level?

conscious experience- what are you thinking/feeling

James-Lange Theory

- proposes that to experience emotion is to be aware of one's physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event

-you perceive the stimulus of the sight of an oncoming car, get arousal of a pounding heart, and then experience the emotion of fear

Cannon-Bard

-proposed that the experience of an emotion occurs simultaneously with the body's arousal

-you perceive the stimulus of the sight of an oncoming car and then you are aroused with a pounding heart and experience the emotion of fear at the same time

Two-Factor Theory

[Schachter and Singer]
-proposed our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors- physical arousal and cognitive label

-you perceive the sight of an oncoming car then you are aroused with a pounding heart and cognitively label yourself as afraid and then experience the emotion of fear

Autonomic Nervous System

-controls physiological arousal
-an arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event

Sympathetic and
Parasympathetic

-sympathetic is arousing and parasympathetic is calming

Arousal Levels and Level of Performance

-

Schachter's study

injection epinephrine into college students [cognition and emotion]

the results of the experiment in which college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with either a euphoric or an irritated person support the idea that our experience of emotion depend on how we interpret the body's arousal

Biological Routes to Emotion

Zajonc and LeDoux- emphasize that some emotions are immediate [spider], without conscious appraisal.

Schachter and Singer- emphasize that appraisal [interpretation, memory, expectations] also determines emotions [hatred, guilt, and love]

Expressed Emotion

non-verbal- emotions are experssed on the face, by the body, and by the intonation of the voice

women are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men

Paul Ekman- pioneering work on emotions and facial expressions is the basis for a new television series 'lie to me'

Facial Feedback

-researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips.

-if you grimace in fear while taking a difficult exam, this facial expression is likely to cause you to experience increasingly intense feelings of fear

Caroll Izard

experienced emotion
-isolated 10 emotions. most of them are present in infancy except for contempt, shame, and guilt

Anger

-chronic hostility is linked to heart disease

Catharsis

-anger is reduced through aggressive action or fantasy

Forgiveness

-mentally rehearsing one's resentments contributes to higher perspiration levels and higher blood pressure levels than mentally rehearsing forgiveness

-releases anger and calms blood pressure and heart rate

Happiness

-people who are happy perceive the world as being saver. they are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives

Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon

- when we feel happy we are more willing to help others

Happiness and Religious Faith

having a meaningful religious faith is found to be clearlly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction

Stress, Stressors

-stress is the process by which we perceive and respond to events [stressors] that threaten or challenge us

Walter Cannon

fight or flight- he perceived the stress response to be highly adaptive because it prepared the organism for fight or flight

Hans Selye

general adaption syndrome:
alarm reaction- body's resources are mobilized to prepare organism to deal with threat

resistance- body adapts to the continued presence of the stressor

exhaustion- if the threat and the body's response continues, possible irreversible damage to the body, or even death, may occur

Stressful Life Events

catastrophic- catastrophic events like earthquakes, combat stress, and floods lead individuals to become depressed, sleepless, and anxious

life changes- leaving home, loss of loved one, job, divorce

daily hassles- rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, and becoming burnt -out are the most significant sources of stress and can damage health

Friedman

type A and B behavior pattern
- A is excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and anger-prone
- B is relaxed and easygoing personality
anger and cardiovascular disease

psychoneuroimmunology

-an understanding of how stress affects our resistance to disease is the central focus of the field

social support and coping with stress

-calms the cardiovascular system, lowers blood pressure, and lowers stress hormones. less stress equals better immunity

study on the cold virus and social support

-research participants who received nasal drops laden with a cold virus were least likely to catch a cold if they had positive social ties

study on aerobic excercise and reducing depression

-mildly depressed female students assigned to a program of aerobic exercise reported a greater decrease in depression than those assigned to a program of relaxation exercises
-increased serotonin and endorphins help

church attendance and life span

-those who attend religious services regularly were more likely than non-attenders to experience a longer life span

spirituality and faith cummunities for religiously active people

-more socially supportive relationships and healthier life-styles than those who are not religiously active

extra credit

language: our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2

babbling stage to words to complete sentences

skinner, says babies learn to talk in many of the same ways that animals learn to peck keys and press bars

chomsky says language is inborn. our brains are prewired and we learn the specific grammar of whatever language we hear. its natural.

nature and nurture or it?

language chart

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