mgmt ch 15

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perception

the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments

perceptual filters

the personality, psychology, or experience based differences that influence them to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli

perceptual process

attention, organization, interpretation, retention

attention

the process of noticing or becoming aware of particular stimuli

organization

the process of incorporating new information (from the stimuli that you notice) into your existing knowledge

interpretation

the process of attaching meaning to new knowledge

retention

the process of remembering interpreted information

selective perception

the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, expectations, while ignoring or screening out inconsistent information

closure

the tendency to fill in the gaps where information is missing, that is, to assume that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know

attribution theory

says that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior. We use 2 general reasons to explain people's behavior - internal and external

internal attribution

behavior is thought to be voluntary or under the control of the individual

external attribution

behavior is thought to be involuntary and outside of the control of the individual

defensive bias

the tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble. WHen we identify with the person in a situation, we tend to use external attributes

fundamental attribution error

the tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes. Assume that the accident is a function of the person and not of the situation

self serving bias

the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing success to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes)

encoding

putting a message into written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver

decoding

the process by which the receiver translates the written, verbal, or symbolic form of the message into an understood message

feedback to sender

a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver's understanding of the message

noise

anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message.

jargon

vocabulary particular to a profession or group that interferes with communication in the workplace

conduit metaphor

the mistaken assumption that senders can pipe their intended messages directly into the heads of receivers with perfect clarity and without noise or perceptual filters interfering with the receivers' understanding of the message

formal communication

the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information. organizational objectives, rules, etc are all transmitted this way.

3 formation communication channels

downward, upward, horizontal

downward communication

flows from higher to lower level in an organization

upward communication

flows from lower levels to higher levels in an organization

horizontal communication

flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level

informal communication channel (grapevine)

the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels

gossip chain

one highly connected individual shares information with many other managers and workers

cluster chain

numerous people simply tell a few of their friends

coaching

communicating with someone about non job related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the persons performance

counseling

communicating with someone about non job related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the persons performance

nonverbal communication

any communication that doesn't involve words

kinesics

movements of the body and face

paralanguage

includes the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of one's voice

communication medium

the method used to deliver a message. 2 kinds, oral and written

hearing

the act or process of perceiving sounds

listening

making a conscious effort to hear

active listening

assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that show you've accurately heard what he or she said

steps to active listening

clarify responses, paraphrase, summarize

empathetic listening

understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker

destructive feedback

disapproving without any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient

constructive feedback

intended to be helpful, corrective, and encouraging

immediate feedback

more effective than delayed feedback because manager and worker can recall the mistake or incident more accurately and discuss it in detail

specific feedback

focuses on particular acts or incidents that are clearly under the control of the employee

problem oriented feedback

focuses on the problems or incidents associated with the poor performance rather than on the worker or the workers personality

cross cultural communication

involves transmitting information from a person in one country or culture to a person from another country or culture

affective cultures

display their emotion and feeling openly

neutral cultures

do not display their emotion and feeling openly

address terms

the cultural norms that establish whether you address businesspeople by their first names, family names, or titles

monochronic cultures

people tend to do one thing at a time and view time as linear

polychronic cultures

people tend to do multiple things at a time and view time as circular

appointment time

how punctual you must be when showing up for scheduled appointments or meetings

schedule time

time by which scheduled projects or jobs should actually be completed

discussion time

concerns how much time should be spent in discussion with others

acquaintance time

how much time you must spend getting to know someone before the person is prepared to do business with you

online discussion forums

the in house equivalent of internet newsgroups. By using web or software based discussion tools that are available across the company, employees can easily ask questions and share knowledge with each other

televised speeches and meetings

speeches and meetings originally made to a smaller audience that are either simultaneously broadcast to other locations in the company or videotaped for subsequent distribution and viewing

corporate talk shows

televised company meetings that allow remote audiences (employees) to pose questions to the show's host and guests

organizational silence

when employees withhold information about organizational problems or issues

company hotlines

phone numbers that anyone in the company can call anonymously to leave information for upper management

survey feedback

information that is collected by surveys from organizational members and then compiled, disseminated, and used to develop actions plans for improvement

blog

a personal website that provides personal opinions or recommendations, new summaries, and reader comments

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