Naturally occuring, inorganic, solid, has definite chemical composition and molecular structure
Each type of mineral has chemical composition unique to that mineral, compound or single elements. Graphite, sulfur, diamond single element composition.
a solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns-rarely, minerals form in open space and grow into one large crystal, watermelon tourmaline and quartz
mineral crytals formed in open space maye take shape of 1 of 7 major crystal systems
12 common minerals in earth's crust-"rock formers" Most minerals are made up of 8 main elements
96% of minerals found in the crust. Minerals that contain both O ans Si and usually 1 or more other elements are silicates
1 Si atom attatched to 4 O atoms-able to share O atoms with other tetrahedron molecules-allows molecules to combine in many ways. Single chain, double chain, and sheet arrangements
atoms are strongly bonded together, highly resistant to weathering and does not break easily along any planes.
minerals made up of one or more metallic elements with the carbonate compount CO3-Dolomite, calcite.
Compounds of oxygen and a metalHardness
resistance of a mineral to being scratched-determined by comparing to hardness of 10 standard minerals
formed from Solidification and crystallization of molten rock.
molten rock below surface of earth
magma on the surface of the earth
quick decrease in temp and pressure-small crystals. fine texture- "aphanitic texture"
Very Fast cooling
occurs near surface or when lava erupts-no crystals, glassy texture
deep under Earth's surface, higher temeprature and pressure-large crystals, coarse texture-"Phaneritic texture"
when bubbles of gas occur in solidifying lava vesicles (holes) form
Intrusive igneous rock
sometimes appears black, but is felsic in composition
pieces of solid material that have been deposited on Earth's surface
formed when sediments are compacted and cemented together
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
weathering and erosion, deposition, compression, cementation, chemical processes, or biological processes
Weathering and Erosion
process that breaks rock into smaller pieces
removal and movement of sediments from one location to another-transported away by wind, running water, gravity, glaciers
when sediments are laid down on ground or sink to the bottom of water bodies-form layers of sediment
most common formation process of sedimentatry rocks- pressure from water and overlying sedimetns force sediments close together, removes water and compacts sediments into rocks
the addition of minerals from the ground water that glue the rock particles together to form solid rock
sedimentary rocks form from evaporation, precipitation (not rain), when water evaporates, the dissolved minerals precipitate our and form a mass of intergrown crystals
sedimentary rocks fromed by evaporation and precipitaion
sedimentary rocks form as a result of processes acting on the remains of once living organisms, fossils
compression of dead plant materials deposited in shallow water formed coal
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
Fragmental (clastic), Chemical, Organic-depends on how the rock was formed
i, s, and other metamorphic rocks that have been changed in form
Formation of Metamorphic Rocks
High Pressure and heat deep within the Earth
result of the recrystallization of minerals under intense heat and pressure
Extreme conditions cause mineral crystals to grow and new minerals to form without melting
Original rock the metamorphic rock formed from-i, s, or m. New rock has larger crystals, denser crystal structure
appearance and mineral arrangement
when pressue aligns minerals into layers that are easy to split
thin layers of alternating minerals, gives stiped appearance, ight and dark minerals into layers
folding and bending of rock layers caused by strong Earth forces
occurs when magma comes in contact with surrounding rocks-heat from magma alters roks it comes in contact with
greatest amount ot metamorrphism occurs when large areas of rock are under great heat and pressure