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Review for Ed's Sociology 1301 Exam three; covering chapters 12, 13, and 14.

Saadawi recalls her experience of ---------- when at at age 6, she was awakened in the night and dragged to the bathroom, her legs were pride apart, and her clitoris was cut off.

Chapter 12, pg 447
Female circumcision (genital cutting): The removal of a woman's sexually sensitive clitoris

Under the sex/gender system, men universally perform the kinds of tasks:

Chapter 12, pg 451
Rubin claimed that in ever society a division of labor of gender occurred. Men universally performed the kinds of tasks accorded higher value than those done by women.

Many people believe sex to be an either-or-situation, but sociologists believe natural sex is:

Chapter 12, pg 451
There are some peculiar exceptions and blurred lines that have led sociologists to view this model of natural sex as more of an ideal than an absolute.

The idea that there was only one sex and the female body was an inversion of the male body was promoted by which culture?

Chapter 12, 453
One sex model dominated Western biological thought from the ancient Greeks until the mid-eighteenth century.

In Navajo tribes, there are three genders. Which of the following is not one of their gender categories?

Chapter 12, 456
In the Navajo society there are masculine men, feminine women, and the nadle.

Which theoretical perspective assumed that every society had certain structures that existed to fulfill some set of necessary functions?

Chapter 12, 460
Structural Functionalism: Theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures (the family, the division of labor, or gender) which exist in order to fulfill some set of functions (reproduction, production of goods).

Which theoretical perspective argues that gender is a product of interactions and is a matter of active doing?

Chapter 12, 464
"Doing Gender" Microinteractionist Theory
Sex Role Theory.

In cultures where scant resources are available, homosexuality is practical because:

Chapter 12, 469
Keeps down the birthrate, makes practical sense to limit the chance of teen pregnancy and overpopulation.

Your text mentions several reasons why American teenagers are rapidly spreading STD's. Which of the following is not one of the reasons?

Chapter 12, 475
1)Teenager interludes tend to be short
2)A lot of partner switching
3)Most adolescents with disease don't know that they are infected

What term refers to the invisible barriers women face when they enter more prestigious corporate worlds?

Chapter 12, 481
Glass Ceiling: An invisible lid on women's climb up the employment ladder.

Race is not fixed biological or natural reality, rather it is?

Chapter 13, 492
largely socially constructed, a set of stories we tell ourselves to organize our reality and make sense of the world.

Modern racial thinking in the mid-seventeenth century in parallel with three global changes. Which of the following is NOT one of the global changes?

Chapter 13, 496
Parallel with global changes such as the Protestant Reformation in Europe, the Age of Exploration, and the rise of capitalism.

Ontological equality is the notion that:

Chapter 13, 498
The notion that all people are created equally under the eyes of God.

What term refers to a pseudoscience of genetics lines and the inheritable traits they pass on from generation to generation?

Chapter 13, 498
Eugenics: literally meaning "well born" the science of genetic lines and the inheritable traits they pass on from generation to generation.

Miscegenation refers to:

Chapter 13, 501
The technical term for multicultural marriage; literally meaning "a mixing of kinds"; it is politically and historically charged-sociologists generally prefer exogamy or outmarriage.

The comparison between the Burakumin and the Japanese shows that race is:

Chapter 13, 504
Race is not necessarily just about physical or biological differences.

Compared with 11% of the US Population as a whole, around 33% of Native Americans die before age:

Chapter 13, 509
33% of Native Americans die before the age of 45

Afro-Caribbean's such as Cubans, Haitans, and Japanese resent being unilaterally categorized as African Americans, because these immigrant groups:

Chapter 13, 510
Each of these groups enjoys a unique history, culture, and language that does not correspond to the American stereotype of black skin.

In one study of television portrayals of Arabs, researchers found basic myths that continue to surround this group.

1) they are fabulously wealthy
2) shown as uncivilized and barbaric
3) portrayed as sex-crazed
4) revel in acts of terrorism, trying to destroy all things american

Which of the following is not a response to oppression:

Chapter 13, 527
The four listed responses to oppression are:
1) Withdrawal
2) Passing
3) Acceptance
4) Resistance

A system in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability is referred to as:

Chapter 13, 559
Meritocracy: a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability, and achievement.

Which of the following is NOT a type of social stratification mentioned in your text.

Chapter 13, 551
Types of social stratification:
1) estate system
2) caste system
3) class system
4) status hierarchy
5) elite-mass hierarchy

Under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?

Chapter 13, 554
Class system: implies an economic basis for the fundamental clevages in society.

Which group exploits the working class by taking more of the value of the work of laborers?

Chapter 13, 555
The Bourgeoise, extract surplus value from the proletariat- capitalists taking more of the value of the work of laborers than they repay in wages.
Class system, marxist theory

Mills argues that there three major institutional forces in modern american society in which the power of decision making has become centralized. Which of the following is not one of these forces?

Chapter 13, 559
The three institutions he listed:
1) economic institutions
2) political order
3) military order

What American job sector has greatly increased since the oil crisis of 1973?

Chapter 13, 565
The service jobs, service workers
in section of working class / middle class
-manufacturing jobs have gone down since 73'

The effect of globalization has been to bifurcate labor into:

Chapter 13, 569
The effect of globalization in the US has been to bifurcate labor into high-skilled and low-skilled jobs.
Inequalities

An example of horizontal social mobility is:

Horizontal social mobility: means a group or individual transitioning from one social group to another situated in the same rung.

Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy is called:

Chapter 13, 574
Structural Mobility: Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy

Proponents of the "estate tax"

Chapter 13, 576
The tax hits hardest at the people who have the most money, provides and important source of government revenue, bolsters the nonprofit industry, and catches those who avoid paying income taxes on capital gains. Most importantly it moves us from aristocracy to meritocracy

Which of the following methods to study social class involves predetermining the variables to be measured and criteria for each variable

Objective

Hollingshead used which of the following variables in his 1957 study of social class?

Education and Occupation

Which of the following events from the 1950's caused the government, business and educational leaders in the US to begin emphasizing science and math in order to keep up with the Russians?

Sputnik

Which of the following methods study social class is based upon asking key people in the community to rank other people in the community?

Reputational Approach

When using the subjective approach, most people tend to rank themselves:

Higher in the middle class

According to the 1920's study by Warner, professionals were ranked

upper middle class

The study by Coleman and Rainwater in the 1980's used a:

reputational and subjective social class study

A sexy but rather dim-witted blonde student asks the professor what he considers to be a stupid question. "Typical blonde bimbo" he tells his friends.

Selective Perception

Mr. Honkey finally concludes that his black neighbor is a fine person after all and not like "all the other---"

Selective exception

Rick Redneck notices a black classmate out on the dance floor at the Honkey Tonk. He notices the classmate can't dance. This is an example of:

Selective rationalization

To incorrectly interpret the behavior being observed on in terms of the stereotype and to ignore all other behavior is termed:

selective interpretation

Educational programs reduce/prevent prejudice seem to work best for:

subordinate groups

A learned negative behavior by one group toward another group is:

prejudice

The act of the denial of equality of opportunity/treatment by one group toward another group is termed:

discrimination

A-----group is the group with the most power, priviledge and status:

dominant

A person can have a negative attitude toward a group but take no negative action against the group.

prejudice without discrimination

An employer's hiring standards/qualification result in qualified applicants and hires mostly from one dominant group. This is an example of:

discrimination without prejudice

A person with prejudice growing up in a town that routinely discriminates against a group can become prejudice toward that group:

Prejudice can be a cause of discrimination

A young child observes grown men constantly badmouthing women. Then he goes into the school yard and hits a female classmate in the chest. This is an example of:

discrimination can be a cause of prejudice

Prejudice can lead to discrimination which can lead to more public prejudice which can lead to more prejudice. This is:

discrimination and prejudice mutually reinforce each other...

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