Old World sand flies
New World sand flies
a large order of insects having a single pair of wings and sucking or piercing mouths
the one that has longest breathing tube
the one that has no breathing tube
The one that has medium breathing tube
a tube running from the liquid in a vessel to a lower level outside the vessel so that atmospheric pressure forces the liquid through the tube
1. Scaled wings have sensors to feel air current
2. Eyes can see infra red, able to detect warm bodies
3. Maxillae can detect CO2
4. Male's antennae are more hairy than female's
the part of mouth that tears the food into smaller pieces
eggs of _____ (with floaters）
eggs of ______ (black individual)
eggs of _______ (in rafts)
Proboscis and body on one axis
abdomen tip blunt
In arthropods, the modification of the exoskeleton for the reception of environmental information. Can be a single unit on antenna, in which a pair of neurons hide under this structure. Depending on types of molecules, signals generated by sensors can vary.
** mosquitoes don't like people that sweating too much. Prefer female with smelly feet.
** proboscis prefer sweet to bitter
** female prefer higher CO2 concentration when feeding on blood
Arthropod-borne viruses disease
a family of arboviruses carried by arthropods; may cause Eastern equine encephalitis
a family of arboviruses carried by arthropods; may cause dengue fever; Yellow Fever, West Nile fever, St. Louis encephalitis
a large family of arboviruses that affect a wide range of hosts (mainly vertebrates and arthropods)l cause hemorrhagic fever
A disease that can be transmitted between animals and humans
Eastern equine encephalitis
A rare illness in humans, and only a few cases are reported in the United States each year. Most cases occur in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast states, also It is focuses east of the Mississippi, in rivers swamps and marshes. Most persons infected have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis) begin with the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then rapidly progress into disorientation, seizures, or coma.
reservoir birds, and dead end hosts horses and humans.
Caused by Togovirus; Vector: Aedes
Western equine encephalitis
Normally a bird infection, with no apparent symptoms, but it can be acquired by other hosts. Horses are particularly susceptible, with a high rate of mortality. Humans also can be infected, but not commonly fatal though sever in children. In adults it results in fever and drowsiness; hence sometimes called sleeping sickness. Rarely, following a coma, a person may have reduced physical capabilities. Togovirus disease; Culex the main vector
St. Louis encephalitis
SLEV, a Culex mosquito borne Flavivirus disease. Most persons infected with SLEV have no apparent illness. Initial symptoms of those who become ill include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and tiredness. Severe neuroinvasive disease (often involving encephalitis) occurs more commonly in older adults. In rare cases, long-term disability or death can result
La Crosse (LAC) encephalitis
Most cases of LACV disease occur in the upper Midwestern and mid-Atlantic and southeastern states. Many people infected with LACV have no apparent symptoms. Among people who become ill, initial symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and tiredness. Some of those who become ill develop severe neuroinvasive disease . Severe LACV disease often involves encephalitis and can include seizures, coma, and paralysis. Severe disease occurs most often in children under the age of 16. In rare cases, long-term disability or death can result from encephalitis.
West Nile Virus
a type of virus known as a flavivirus. virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person.
Mosquitos carry the highest amounts of virus in the early fall, which is why the rate of the disease increases in late August to early September. The risk of disease decreases as the weather becomes colder and mosquitos die off.
most people do not know they've been exposed. Few people develop severe disease or even notice any symptoms at all.
Mild, flu-like illness is often called West Nile fever. More severe forms of disease, which can be life threatening, may be called West Nile encephalitis or West Nile meningitis, depending on what part of the body is affected.
Risk factors for developing a more severe form include:
* Conditions that weaken the immune system, such as HIV, organ transplants, and recent chemotherapy
* Older age
virus may also be spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants. It is possible for an infected mother to spread the virus to her child through breast milk.
Vector: Culex and Aedes
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Severe multisystem syndrome
Vascular system damage
Body looses ability to regulate itself
the major vector of Yellow Fever and Dengue
A Flavivirus disease transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, caused by DENV 1-4. Also called breakbone fever and epidemic hemorrhagic fever.
Two types: (depending on exposure history)
- Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
Symptoms: Fever, severe headaches, pains in muscles and joints; recovery is rapid.
A hemorrhagic complication occurs occasionally, condition ranges from a rash and mottled skin to severe hemorrhaging in the lungs, digestive tract, and skin
Asian tiger mosquito, major vector of Dengue and Yellow Fever
now confined to tropical & near-tropical areas; mosquitoes are the vectors; symptoms - high fever w/ aches & vomiting; can color eyes and skin yellow (jaundice).
3 to 6 days
-15% of patients
-Body systems affected
-Death within10 to 14 days