Apologia Physical Science (ed 2) Module 7

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The point at which the earth is farthest from the sun


The point at which the earth is closest to the sun


Imaginary lines that run north and south across the earth


Imaginary lines that run east and west across the earth

Coriolis effect

The way in which the rotation of the earth bends the path of winds, sea currents, and flying objects that fly through different latitudes

Air mass

A large body of air with relatively uniform pressure, temperature, and humidity

Weather front

A boundary between two air masses


Identify cloud type


Identify cloud type


Identify cloud type


Identify cloud type


refers to the condition of the earth's atmosphere (mostly the troposphere) at any particular time and would include the current temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind speed.


a steady condition that prevails day in and day out in a particular region of creation.

cumulonimbus clouds

Identify cloud type

nimbostratus clouds

Identify cloud type

cirrocumulus clouds

Identify cloud type

stratocumulus clouds

Identify cloud type

cirrostratus clouds

Identify cloud type


the light that comes to earth. abbreviation for "INcoming SOLar radiATION"

earth's axial tilt

earth is tilted in space by about 23.5 degrees on average and is responsible for earth's seasons.

summer solstice

the time when the earth's path around the sun has forced the Northern Hemisphere to start pointing directly at the sun and receives over 12 hours of sun, usu. around June 21 or 22.

winter solstice

the time when the Southern Hemisphere becomes pointed directly at the sun usu. around Dec. 21 or 22. At this time, the Northern Hemisphere receives less than 12 hours of sunlight.

spring equinox

March 20th or 21st in the Northern Hemisphere, when both hemispheres recieve 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness

autumnal equinox

September 22-23, sun is directly overhead the equator at noon, 12 hour daylight/12 hour night, first day of fall, sun's rays most directly strike the equator, Earth's tilt points at right angle to the sun


imaginary line that runs directly between the Northern and Douthern Hemispheres of the earth.

prime meridian

the imaginary reference line of longitude which determines east/west position of the earth.


as the cold air sinks, it creates a buildup of air, resulting in a high pressure region.


scientists who study the weather

arctic air mass

very cold air

polar air mass

cold but not as cold as arctic air masses

tropical air mass

warm air


formed over the ocean


formed over a continent

cold front

a cold air mass moves in on a region of warmer air.

warm front

results when a warm air mass moves into a region occupied by colder air

stationary front

when two air masses collide and neither moves

occluded front

two air masses traveling in the same direction collide; the colder air mass - traveling faster- overtakes and collides with warm air masses.

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