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respiration

exchange of gas between organism and environment

inhalation

pull air in

exhalation

push air out

air pressure

force exerted by air molecules on walls of container

pressure

force exerted upon area

pressure and area are______ related

inversely

larger area/volume=

less pressure

forces seek_______

equilibrium

increase air pressure

air moves to an area of lower pressure

atmospheric pressure

pressure in relevant open space

lungs

1) increase size 2) creates negative air pressure in lungs 3)air flows in to equalize pressure 4) air pressure in lungs becomes positive 5) air moves out to equalize pressure

bony thorax

protection

visceral thorax

air passages/lungs

muscles

change size of air containers to create air flow

structures of respiration

bony thorax, visceral thorax, muscles

thorax boundaries

upper, lower, anterior, lateral, posterior

upper boundary

clavicle and 1st rib

lower boundary

12th rib (last)

anterior boundary

ribs 1-12, sternum

lateral boundary

ribs 1-12

posterior boundary

vertebral column

cervical

7, c1-c7, in neck

thoracic

12, T1-T12

lumbar

L1-L5, lower back

sacral

S1-S5, fused into 1 bone

coccygeal

3-4, fused=coccyx(vestigial tail

atlas

c1, supports the skull for head rotation

axis

c2, has spinous process

vertebral foramen

where spinal cord/brain stem pass through

superior articular facet

limits movement, protects spinal cord

dens/odontoid process

spinous process on axis

costal factes

on thoracic vertebrae; articulating surface on body and transverse process

sacrum

remnants of spinous and transverse processes

sacral foramina

provide passage for the sacral nerves

pelvic girdle

girdle connecting lower extremities to axis

ilium

large, wing-like bone

iliac crest

attachment site for the lnguinal ligament

pectoral/shoulder girdle

girdle connecting upper extremities to axis

sternum

midline connector for ribs and clavicle

scapula

winglike bone, supports shoulder

clavicle

collar bone, supports shoulder, articulates with sternum and scapula

head, neck, angle, shaft

parts to the rib

vertebrosternal

true ribs (1-7)

vertebrochondral

false ribs (8-10)

vertebral

floating ribs (11 and 12)

chondral portion of ribs

cartilaginous portion

manubrium sterni, corpus and xiphoid process

3 components of sternum

manubrium sterni

top of sternum, provides attachment for clavicle and the 1st rib

corpus

middle of sternum, articulation points for chondral portions of ribs 2-10

xiphoid process

bottom, swordlike part of sternum,

sternal notch

superior surface of the manubrium sterni

nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx

upper respiratory tract

trachea, bronchi

lower respiratory tract

trachea

16-20 hyaline cartilage c-shaped rings

carina trachea

point of bifurcation into bronchial tubes

main stem, secondary (lobar), tertiary bronchi

bronchial tree

left lung

14 levels (2 lobes)

right lung

28 levels (3 lobes)

terminal bronchioles

final branching tube

alveolar ducts

lead to alveoli

alveoli

region of gas exchange

pneumocytes

alveolar lining

type 1

(flat epithelial) gas exchange

type 2

(cuboidal) produce surfactant

heart, esophagus, nerves, blood vessels

mediastinum

pleural lining

provides a means of smooth contact for rough tissue, attached by surfactant, low surface tension to allow sliding motion

vagus nerve

innervates heart, lungs, diaphragm

visceral pleurae

lungs encased here

parietal pleurae

thoracic linings

mediastinal, diaphragmatic, costal, apical

regions of parietal pleurae

dry pleurisy

loss of surfacant

diaphragm

separates thoracic/abdominal cavities, is a thin musculotendinous sheet

esophageal, foramen vena cava, aortic

diaphragmatic hiatuses, main passages in diaphragm

central tendon

intermediate region of the diaphragm

accessory muscles

when anything other than quiet breathing

thoracic, neck, arm/shoulder

accessory muscles of inhalation

external intercostal muscles

when they contract the entire rib cage elevates (11 pairs)

levatores costarum-longis

(lift ribs long) elevate ribs 9-12

levatores costarum-brevis

(short) elevat ribs 1-12

serratus posterior superior

elevate ribs 2-5

sternocleidomastoid

elevate sternum and clavicle, turn head opposite direction

scalenes

elevate ribs 1-2

clavicular breathing

using clavicle muscles to breathe, not efficient

pectoralis muscles

for movement of arm, elevation of rib cage

pectoralis major

elevate sternum

pectoralis minor

elevate ribs

serratus anterior

movement of shoulder, elevate ribs 1-9

trapezius

supports head, neck, vertebral column

innermost intercostals

depress ribs 1-11, pull ribs down

transversus thoracis

depress rib cage

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