The belief that humans hold a special place in nature; begin centered primarily on humans and human affairs.
The belief that all creatures have rights and values; being centered on nature rather than humans.
Those in which those carrying out the experiment don't know until after data has been gathered and analyzed which was the experimental treatment and which was the control.
Those in which comparisons are made between experimental and control populations that are identical (as far as possible) in every factor except the one variable being studied.
One in which neither the experimenter or the subjects know until after data has been gathered and analyzed which was the experimental treatment and which was the control.
A pluralistic, nonhierarchical, relationship-oriented philosophy that suggests how humans could reconceive themselves and their relationships to nature in non-dominating ways as an alternative to patriarchal system of domination.
A search for moral values and ethical principles in human relations with the natural world.
A recognition that access to a clean, healthy environment is a fundamental right of all human beings.
Decisions that restrict certain people or groups of people to polluted or degraded environments on the basis of race.
Ethical values or rights, that exist as an intrinsic or essential characteristic of a particular thing or class of things simply by the fact of their existence.
Value or worth of objects that satisfy the needs and wants of moral agents. Objects that can be used as a means to some desirable end.
Locally Unwanted Land Uses such as toxic waste dumps, incinerators, smelters, airports, freeways, and other sources of environmental, economic or social degradation.
Beings capable of making distinctions between right or wrong and acting accordingly. Those who hold responsible for their actions.
Expansion of our understanding of inherent value or rights to persons, organisms, or things that might not be considered worthy or value or rights under some ethical philosophies.
Beings that are not capable of distinguishing between right or wrong or that are not able to act on moral principles and yet are capable of being wronged by others.
Those who believe the world has no meaning or purpose other than a dark, cruel, unceasing struggle for power and existence.
An explanation, supported by many tests and accepted by a general concensus of scientists.
A philosophy that holds that humans have a unique responsibility to manage, care for, and improve nature.
Those who believe that some fundamental ethical principles are universal and unchanging. In this vision, these principles are valid regardless of the context or situation.
Those who hold that an action is right that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people.