The process of coding and putting the information into memory. Information to be remembered must be put in a form that the memory system can accept or use. Ex: Like writing down something on a paper.
When the sound of words encoded as if the subject was speaking speaking it and the memory is remembered as a sequence of sound. Ex: Like a audio tape running in your mind, such as your mom saying "remember to make your bed" as if she was really saying it.
When the image of the information is represented in the memory is a picture.
When the information is represented in the subject's memory by its general meaning. Ex: Remembering your first day at a amusement park but only being able to recall the scariness of roller coasters (which will come to represent amusement parks).
Maintain in memory; it refers to keeping information in memory over a long period of time.
Recover from memory; it occurs when the subject locate information stored in memory and bring it into consciousness.
Memory of a specific event that happened while the subject was present. Ex: Like a TV episode.
Generalized knowledge of the world that does not involved memory of a specific event. Ex: Like semantic encoding (go look for it).
Memory of how to do things, such as riding a bike or tying a shoelace.
When the subject intentionally try to remember something and is consciously aware of doing so.
The unintentional recognition and influence of prior experiences.
Mental representation of physical stimuli.
Recall (in retrieval)
The subject have to retrieve the memory without much help.
Recognition (in retrieval)
Retrieval aided by clues, such as the response alternative given on multiple-choice tests.
Facilitation of Performance (priming)
Is automatic and occurs without conscious effort (part of implicit memory).
Level of Processing Model
Suggest that the most important determinant of memory is how extensively information is encoded or processed when it's first received.
Involves simply repeating an item over and over. Effective for only a short time period.
Involves thinking about how new material relates to information already stored in memory. Effective for long-term remembering.
Memory performance is determined by how it is initially encoded and how it is later retrieved.
Parallel Distributed Model
New information not only provide new facts but is also integrated with existing knowledge of memories.
Information Processing Model
Suggests that in order for information to become firmly embedded in memory, it must pass through three stages of mental processing: sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory.
Held in sensory registers (like temp. storage bins) for a VERY brief period of time, often for less than a second; holds memory for further processing.
Short Term Memory
Sensory information then travels to the short-term memory: if processed, it is encoded into long-term memory (or) if left alone, it will disappear in less than 20 seconds; is limited in capacity.
Long Term Memory
Information that stays in the memory as long as the subject wants; result of deep-level conscious processing and usually involves some form of semantic encoding.
Part of memory system that allows the subject to mentally work with or manipulate the information being held in short term memory.
Immediate Memory Span
The number of items the subject can recall perfectly after one presentation of a stimulus.
Research format that involves the subject looking at a stimulus/i, asked to recall something relevant but is not the stimulus/i, then asked to recall the original stimulus/i. Ex: If you're presented with a set of number, the conductor may ask you to count backward from 100 for 10 seconds and then ask you to recall the original set of numbers.
A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items. Ex: With a set of random numbers (4,6,10,22,34,1,2), 1 and 2 is remembered by most if not all participants.
A characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two or three items in a list is particularly good. Ex: With a set of random numbers (4,6,10,22,34,1,2), 4 and 6 is remembered by most if not all participants.
Stimuli that help the subject retrieve information from long-term memory.
Encoding Specifically Principle
The factor in which the effectiveness of cues influence the degree to which the subject tap into the encoded information.
Memory that is helped or hindered by the environment.
When the subject's internal state aid or hamper retrieval.
Detailed memory shared among a big population. Ex: those those was old enough to remember 9-11, the event would be something that most of America would recall with similar/same details.
Semantic Network Theory
All the concepts the subject has learned are represented in a dense network of association. (If needed, search up "spreading activation".)
When the subject retrieves information some feature of a concept but not enough to identify it.
The using of knowledge to organize new information and fill in gaps in information that was encoded and retrieved. Ex: If middle students are taken into college classroom and are asked to observe, some may "recall" seeing large textbooks despite there being none. This is because the students assumed college students would read a lot, so the association sticked.
Mental representation of categories of objects, events and people. Ex: Food, spoon, refrigerator, sink, forks, knives, stoves, and cooking oil would all be under the "kitchen" or "cooking" schemas.
Method of Savings (measure of forgetting)
Involves computing (processing) the difference between the number of trials needed to learn a list and the number of trailed needed to relearn it after some time has passed. (Basically the curve at which the subject forgets information over time.)
The gradual disappearance of the mental representation of a stimulus.
A process through which either the storage or retrieval of information is impaired by the presence of the information. (Remember to see retroactive and proactive interference.)
When the learning of new information interferes with recall of older information. Ex: Think of it like this, retro is like "new" and to learn you need to be "active".
When old information interferes with the learning or remembering of new information.
A group of interconnected neurons in the brains which form a network in the cortex (proposed by Hebb).
A loss of memory for any event occurring AFTER the injury.
A loss of memory for events occurred BEFORE the injury.
A disorder that usually occurs in chronic alcoholic, the subject is unable to form new episodic memories but retain some implicit memories Ex: This was on a recent episode of House, where the patient couldn't remember what happened to her but would instead, take in her surrounding to make up memories, sort of like lying but she doesn't know it, and would forget about the fake memory in moments.
Extra: define "consolidated"
Brought together into a single whole, having become solid or coherent. (This will be used in several psychological scenarios on tests and quizzes)