The safest way to meet vitamin A needs is by
consuming a variety of brightly colored fruits and vegetables
Which of the following snacks provides the most vitamin C?
A. Vanilla ice cream topped with sliced strawberries
B. Whole wheat crackers with peanut butter
C. Baked apples with cinnamon and brown sugar
D. Grilled cheese sandwich
Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content of the typical North American diet?
A. Got Milk?
C. Beef: It's What's for Dinner
D. Fight Bac!
Which of the following vitamins has been helpful in large doses as a treatment for acne?
A. vitamin C
B. vitamin D
C. vitamin A
D. vitamin E
An atom's nucleus has a
Which of the following serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes, protecting them and DNA inside cells, from damage?
In green vegetables, such as broccoli, the orange pigments of provitamin A carotenoids are masked by
Glutathion peroxidase converts
peroxides into water.
Free radicals are generated by
normal metabolic processes.
a. one form of vitamin A.
b. one form of vitamin E.
c. a precursor to vitamin A.
d. a precursor to vitamin E.
Which of the following is not accounted for in the calculation of RAEs?
a. Preformed vitamin A
The bioavailability of carotenoids is affected by
b. consumption with meat products.
c. soil mineral content.
d. exposure to acid.
Which of the following qualities can help to identify produce that is rich in antioxidants?
Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?
c. Older adults
An average severing of which food provides the most vitamin A?
The vitamin C content of foods can be decreased by?
All choices are correct
Most vitamin A is stored in the?
Which of the following groups is at high risk for negative consequences of marginal vitamin E status?
Formation and maintenance of collagen requires?
A mineral that has antioxidant functions and has been suggested to reduce cancer risk is?
George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?
All of the following can be described as functional foods
a. milk enriched with CLA, a dietary oil that may improve immune function.
b. a granola bar with added calcium to improve bone health.
c. a granola bar with added psyllium, a soluble fiber that may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
d. sweet potatoes, which contain beta-carotene, a cancer-fighting antioxidant.
Vitamin E functions as an
Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of?
Antioxidants donate electrons to
Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?
Replacing animal fats with plants oils in the diet would not only cut saturated fat intake, but would also?
increase vitamin E intake
Vitamin E is thought to be helpful in the prevention of heart disease because it?
a. acts as a blood thinner.
b. prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.
c. relaxes blood vessel walls.
d. prevents sodium retention.
Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of
The most bioavailable source of vitamin E is
Which of the following is a good source of provitamin A?
Which of the following vitamins has been helpful in large doses as a treatment for acne?
Vitamin C enhances the absorption of?
Vitamin C participates in the recycling of
Vitamin E aids the absorption of
Which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A?
An average serving of which food provides the most vitamin A?
Vitamin C contributes to bone health by virtue of its role in?
a. antioxidant reactions.
b. collagen synthesis.
c. immune function.
d. mineral absorption.
Mrs. Davis is a 70-year-old white female who just had a DEXA measurement to assess her bone density. Her T-score of -2.1 indicates
The most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is?
______________ inhibit osteoclast activity to prevent bone loss.
Which of the following would be the best source of vitamin D for a person following a vegan diet?
VitaminD- fortified Milk
Which of the following is not a function of calcium?
a. Muscle contraction
b. Appetite regulation
c. Blood clotting
d. Normal nerve transmission
Calcium absorption is decreased by all of the following except:
a. phytic acid.
b. oxalic acid.
Calcium absorption is increased by all of the following except:
Regarding use of calcium supplements, which of the following is true?
a. Supplements containing oyster shell and dolomite are recommended for their high bioavailability.
b. Intakes over 500 milligrams per dose may interfere with absorption of iron and zinc.
c. For maximum absorbability, any form of calcium supplements should be taken between meals.
d. The USP label warns consumers that the supplement may contain high levels of lead or aluminum.
The childhood disease rickets is due to a deficiency of
Food sources of calcium are superior to supplemental sources because
a. food sources are less likely to be contaminated by harmful minerals.
b. many people find it difficult to adhere to a supplement regimen.
c. food sources contain additional nutrients and phytochemicals.
d. All of these choices are correct.
The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is
milk and dairy products
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
Higher intakes of all of the following are associated with increased bone mass except:
b. vitamin D.
c. vitamin C.
Magnesium deficiency causes all of the following except:
a. irregular heartbeat.
b. muscle pain.
Of the following, the mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
For prevention of osteoporosis, strength training is
a. recommended because the stress on bones stimulates bone maintenance.
b. recommended because it decreases estrogen levels.
c. not recommended because it increases fracture risk.
d. not recommended because it increases testosterone levels.
What is magnesium's primary function
a. It acts as the carrier for calcium absorption
b. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis
c. It maintains mucus production in the digestive tract
d. It is important for nerve and heart function
Which would you expect to furnish the largest amount of calcium?
1 ounce of cheese
Soft bones resulting from a deficiency of vitamin D in adulthood is known as?
Vitamin K is important for
a. activates proteins that bind calcium.
b. activates blood clotting factors.
c. enhances absorption of dietary calcium.
d. enhances absorption of dietary phosphorus.bone health because it
In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in
bones and teeth
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because it can be
formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun
Which of the following populations is most susceptible to vitamin K deficiency?
b. Preschool children who are picky eaters
c. Children with cystic fibrosis
d. Older adults
The mixture of calcium and phosphorus that mineralizes bone it called?
b. calcium citrate
c. calcium carbonate.
All of the following populations are at risk for poor magnesium status except:
Reduced blood calcium levels would result from actions of
The most accurate method of assessing bone health is
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
Magnesium is required for
a. bone health.
b. cardiovascular health.
c. energy-yielding reactions.
d. All of these choices are correct.
The ability of the skin to synthesize Vitamin D is
decreased by the use of sunscreen
To promote bone health, exclusively breastfed infants require
supplemental vitamin D
Bone remodeling refers to a continual
a. continual degradation and regeneration of bone.
b. loss of height that occurs with aging.
c. growth at the ends of long bones.
d. use of metal pins to repair broken bones.
This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however, it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities
Type 1 Osteoporosis most dramatically effects the
The most effective treatment for preventing bone loss in those at risk for osteoporosis is
a. adequate bone building nutrients.
b. estrogen and increasing calcium.
c. increasing calcium.
d. increasing calcium and vitamin D.
Postmenopausal women are more prone to fractures than premenopausal women primarily because
low estrogen levels accelerate bone loss
The network of protein fibers within bone is called the?
Exceedingly the UL for phosphorus can lead to
In women, bone loss begins around age
A promising strategy to help other countries increase food resources is to use
"green revolution" technologies.
Which of the following is true of semistarvation? A. Impairment does not occur if there are no clinical symptoms.
B. Often the first sign that tissues are being affected is a biochemical change that may be detectable by a blood test.
C. Physical symptoms often appear before evidence of biochemical changes.
D. Action to correct undernutrition should only be taken when clinical symptoms are detected.
Approximately how many Americans live at or near the poverty level of $18,400 annually for a family of four?
Which of the following is the best approach to preventing famine in developing nations?
Increase the productivity of rural people by teaching them farming methods so they can build agricultural surpluses to eat and sell.
The program developed in the 1960s to help increase availability of foods to entire families is the
Food Stamp Program
Which of the following is true about the type of person who gets AIDs?
Anyone can get it
Impaired development or function that results from an inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of the nutrients needed for optimal growth, development, and body function is best termed
The major cause of undernutrition in the United States is?
The majority of hungry people live in?
The single most effective health advantage for people wherever they live is?
Safe and convenient water supply
Which of the following is not true about AIDS?
After infection with the HIV virus, AIDS symptoms generally begin showing within a year.
What is the term to describe failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that either fails to meet or greatly exceeds nutritional needs?
All of the following are effects of semistarvation except:
lack of hunger and appetite
The Special Supplemental Feeding Program for WIC
a. provides breakfast for school children.
b. provides food vouchers and nutrition education to low-income pregnant and lactating women and their young children.
c. has not been shown to be cost effective.
d. has not been shown to reduce the numbers of low-birth-weight babies.
Homeless children suffer high rates of all of the following medical conditions except
Which of the following is not true about "new biotechnology"?
A. It has no beneficial applications that are without significant risks.
B. Most of the possible risks of its use are uncertain at this time.
C. Most soybeans produced in the United States are genetically engineered.
D. It is unlikely, at this point in time, that it will be a helpful solution to the undernutrition problem in developing nations.
Based on body weight comparisons, at 6 months of age a child's kcalorie per kilogram body weight needs are approximately how many times higher than adult needs?
It is impractical to introduce solid foods into an infant's diet before 4 to 6 months of age, because until that time:
head and neck control are not established
Teenagers are at risk of deficiency in which of the following nutrients?
calcium and iron
In the United States, more than _____ percent of school-age children are overweight or obese?
Breast milk contains approximately how many kcalories per quart?
Children will more effectively develop the breakfast eating habit if:
parents eat breakfast with them
In adults the most common type of food allergy is:
Absence of breakfast for children is associated with:
decreased performance in school and decreased attention span
Iron-deficiency anemia in the latter part of infancy is associated with:
a diet containing few solid foods
Infants who are born prematurely will catch up in growth by:
2 to 3 years
The most sensitive indicator of long-term nutrient intake in a child is:
Approximately what percentage of obese adolescents become obese adults?
Essential fatty acids should make up ______ percent of the total fat intake of infants
For children 3 years of age and older, the most useful growth charts are:
BMI for age
The first solid foods usually introduced into an infant's milk diet are:
a. egg whites.
b. pureed meats.
c. pureed fruits.
d. iron-fortified cereals.
The fluid requirements of the infant are approximately __________ cups per day
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the best age to introduce solidfoods into the infant's diet is:
4 to 6 months
Adolescents obtain ______ percent of their energy and nutrient intakes from snacks.
25 to 33
The greatest energy requirement per unit of body weight occurs during:
Iron stores present at birth generally are depleted by ______ to ______ months
Brain growth is most rapid in infancy but stops by about what age?
Weight gain during the second through about the eighth year of life is about ______ pounds per year.
Infants need fat because it aids in absorption of several vitamins and also helps the ______________ to develop.
Feeding problems may develop during the preschool years partially because of:
decreased appetite associated with less-rapid growth
Approximately one third of children in developing nations are short and underweight for their age. The most frequent cause is:
weaning to high-carbohydrate, low-protein diets
Many formula products for infants contain:
a. lactose, heat-treated cows' milk protein, and vegetable oils.
b. soy protein, glucose, and vegetable oils.
c. fructose and heat-treated cow's milk protein.
d. galactose and vegetable oils.
Approximately what percentage of obese children become obese adults?
The adolescent growth spurt:
begins earlier in girls than boys
Human milk provides _______ percent of kcalories from protein.
If a child is to follow a totally vegetarian diet, greater attention should be given to which of the following nutrients?
Protein and vitamin B-12
Human milk provides ______ percent of kcalories from fat.
According to present day growth charts, an infant will double his or her birth weight at about ______ months of age.
Daily protein needs during infancy vary from ______ to ______ grams per day.
In children under 3 years of age the most common type of food allergy is:
Today most females reach their full height:
within 5 years after menarche
High-fiber diets are:
a. recommended for infants after 4 months of age.
b. recommended for infants after 6 months of age.
c. not recommended for infants.
d. recommended for breastfed infants only.
The new WHO growth standards stress that _______________ is the biological
norm for infant nutrition.
The food needs of preschool children are relatively great and it may be important to:
serve snacks daily in addition to meals
Obesity is a growing problem among teenagers, and about ______ percent of obese teenagers have the metabolic syndrome (Syndrome X).
Nutrition experts have created a version of MyPyramid for children aged:
Preschool children should be encouraged to try new foods. If a child is reluctant to do so, it is best to:
ask that he or she at least taste it
All of the following are true about "nursing bottle syndrome" except:
a. it causes tooth decay in bottle-fed infants.
b. it is associated with an infant keeping a bottle in his or her mouth while sleeping.
c. it results from the teeth being bathed in carbohydrate-rich fluid.
d. it is associated with not brushing the infant's gums at least 3 times per week.
All of the following should be omitted from an infant's diet except:
B. low-fat milk.
C. hot dogs.
D. corn syrup.
Which of the following statements is true?
a. There is strong evidence that infant obesity will result in adulthood obesity.
b. Obese infants become obese preschool children.
c. Most overweight infants become normal weight preschoolers.
d. Kcalories should be restricted for obese infants to levels less than those for normal weight infants.
All of the following are recommended to help preschoolers eat vegetables except:
promise dessert when vegetables are eaten
Mildred is worried about her infant becoming obese in adulthood. Which of the following would not be accurate information if you were attempting to counsel her?
a. Fat cells can increase in number during infancy and adulthood.
b. If she limits kcalories during infancy, the growth of other organ systems may be retarded.
c. Most obese infants become normal weight preschoolers.
d. Her infant should eat 20 percent of his or her kcalories as fat to prevent obesity.
All of the following are characteristic of food allergies except:
once they develop, they are always permanent
Which of the following in not a common food allergen?
Which of the following is true about teens and vegetable consumption?
Potato chips and French fries make up more than one-third of the vegetable intake of teens
Which foods would you suggest adding to the diet of a preschool child who needs increased iron intake?
Susie is 3 years old. At her most recent checkup she was at the 20th percentile for height. This means that:
79 of 100 girls her age are taller than she is
Which of the following minerals may be low in the diets of adolescent girls?
Iron and calcium
At age 4 to 6 months an infant can do all the following except:
handle finger foods
All of the following are true about readiness to add solid foods to an infant's diet except:
a. the infant has head and neck control.
b. the infant is consuming more than 32 ounces of formula or breast-feeding more than 8-10 times per day.
c. the infant is able to put food in its mouth.
d. the infant is at least 13 pounds.
Among the older population, the fastest growing age group is:
85 and older
Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism?
Which of the following is true about thirst among the elderly?
Elderly individuals can easily become dehydrated and this can cause confusion
Food habits of older adults may be influenced by all of the following except:
production of melatonin
Which of the following is the best definition of life span?
The potential oldest age a person can reach
Which of the following is not a Dietary Guideline for Americans?
Eliminate salt and sodium from the diet.
Which of the following is true about application of the RDAs to elderly people?
The RDAs are now tailored to 57-70 and 70+ years of age.
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so in moderation, defined as the consumption of up to __ drink per day for women and older adults and up to __ drinks per day for men.
Which of the following is not a good predictor of physical health status in the elderly?
A. Chronological age
B. Nutritional habits
C. Extent of physiological changes
D. Family history
The decrease in lean tissue that occurs with aging can best be prevented by
A. eating a lot of protein.
B. exercise and a weight training program.
C. eating a lot of kcalories.
D. taking vitamin and mineral supplements.
Edna, at age 75, has found she does not tolerate milk products well. She should do which of the following?
A. Eat more vegetables.
B. Increase her protein intake.
C. Eliminate dairy foods.
D. Decrease the serving size of dairy foods.
Barbara is 65 years of age and her doctor finds her mental function is declining. Which of the following will not significantly impact this issue?
A. Striving for life long learning
B. Exercising regularly
C. Eating a healthy diet
D. Taking nutrition supplements
For those over 40 years of age, an exercise program should include all of the following except
A. physician clearance.
C. rest periodically.
D. exercise through the pain.
Bud has trouble with his dentures and problems chewing. Which of the following foods would be best to help meet his nutritional needs?
C. Sirloin steak
D. Low-fat yogurt
`The DETERMINE acronym refers to all of the following except
A. eating poorly.
C. economic hardship.
D. multiple medications.
Elderly people should limit alcohol consumption due to all of the following except
A. they become intoxicated more easily.
B. they have lower amounts of body water in which to dilute alcohol.
C. decreased ability to metabolize alcohol.
D. increased risk of depression.
Bill wants to eat a health-promoting diet. Which of the following practices derived from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans would he notwant to follow?
Consume no more than four alcohol-containing drinks daily.
In the year 2050, about ______ percent of the population of the United States will be 65 years and older.
All of the following are practical suggestions for diet planning for singles except:
buying family-sized packages of meat.
Which of the following is true about aging?
Not every elderly person dies of a disease that commonly accompanies old age.
All of the following tend to happen as one agesexcept:
high chromium intake impairs glucose tolerance
Sara is an administrator at a bank. Sara eats plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and lean meats. She is of Northern European descent and is quite small in stature. What could she do to live a more health-promoting lifestyle?
Consume plenty of low-fat milk and dairy products.
Alzheimer's patients are likely to be helped by all of the following except:
limiting sun exposure
The physiological changes of aging that will decrease food utilization in the body include all of the following except:
All of the following can cause apathetic eating and weight loss except:
participation in a congregate meal program
Use of which of the following medications could cause appetite loss in an elderly person?
A basic plan for health promotion and disease prevention includes all of the following except:
consuming 3 to 5 ounces of alcohol daily
Which of the following is the best definition of life expectancy?
a. The time an average person can expect to live
b. The maximum number of years humans live
c. The rate of death from a variety of diseases
d. The rate of disability from a variety of diseases
The dietary manipulation that is related most significantly to longevity in animal studies is:
Loss of vision and hearing can negatively affect nutritional health. The biggest problem is the inability to:
shop for food
The foundation for a diet that optimizes long-term nutritional health emphasizes all of the following except:
a. low-fat dairy products.
b. a variety of fruits and vegetables.
c. refined grain breads and cereals.
d. lean meats.
Compared to individuals aged 19 - 50, adults over the age of 70 need _____ times more vitamin D.
The life span of humans is approximately ______ years.
Because elderly individuals need similar amounts of nutrients as their younger counterparts but less kcalories, they should focus on diet plans that emphasize:
Some researchers believe that damage to cells by electron-seeking compounds may contribute to the aging process. Which of the following nutrients does not protect cells from these compounds?
Long-term aspirin use by an elderly person could increase the need for what nutrient?
Consuming adequate ______ and ______ helps maximize the health of the immune system in elderly individuals.
Which of the following is true about diet and Alzheimer's disease?
It is wise for others to oversee food planning and mealtimes to ensure nutritional adequacy
Which of the following is true about U.S. dietary consumption since the mid 1950s?
a. We are eating less cheese.
b. We are consuming less saturated fat.
c. We are eating more eggs.
d. We are eating less chicken and fish.
Aging most likely is the result of:
slow cell death
Of older people, at least _____ percent have nutrition-related health problems.
Excess calorie intake can lead to which of the following?
Accelerated body breakdown
n the aging process, physiological functioning of organs decreases but it may be years before this decline in organ function becomes noticeable. This is referred to as:
The decrease in lean tissue that occurs with aging can best be prevented by:
exercise and a weight training program
Maggie switches to a health-promoting diet. This potentially will have the most impact on:
quality of life in later years
Maude is losing her sense of taste and smell. Which of the following is true about her situation?
She will need to vary her diet and use more herbs and spices
Use of certain diuretics can increase the need for what nutrient?
Mack is constipated. Safe recommendations include all of the following except
a. eat 30 grams of fiber per day.
b. drink more fluid.
c. use mineral oil routinely and liberally.
d. eat more whole grains.
a. promote the formation of free radicals.
b. donate electrons to free radicals.
c. are reduced in chemical reactions.
d. damage cell membranes
Which of the following is an example of genetic engineering?
a. Cross-breeding wheat and corn
b. Educating farmers about the advantages of one type of rice over another
c. Developing new, biodegradable pesticides
d. Changing DNA inside grape seeds so they produce their own pesticide to prevent attack by insects
Consuming carotenoids may reduce the risk for all of the following except
c. age-related macular degeneration.
d. cardiovascular disease.
The mineral that gives hardness to teeth and bones is