Meteorology Test 3

75 terms by sjfowl13

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Convergence

The piling up of air above a region

Divergence

The spreading out of air above a region

Source

The area where an air mass develops, its ________ region, determines its characteristics

Continental Arctic Air Mass

An air mass that is exceptionally cold and dry

Maritime Tropical Air Mass

An air mass that is warm and humid

Maritime Polar Air Mass

An air mass that is cold and humid

Continental Tropical Air Mass

An air mass that is hot and dry

Anticyclone

A high pressure area

Cyclone

A low pressure area

Land Breeze

A _____ _______ is a local circulation that occurs at night as a result of land cooling off more rapidly than water at the beach

Sea Breeze

A _____ _______ is a local circulation (wind) that occurs during the day as a result of land heating up more rapidly than water at the beach

Mountain Breeze

A _________ ______ occurs at night as mountain slopes cool rapidly due to radiational cooling, and the cooled air flows downward into the valley

Valley Breeze

A ______ _______ occurs during the day as valley walls are heated by solar radiation and the heated air rises

Warm Front

A _____ _______ is a zone where relatively light (warmer) air advances moving over colder air

Cold Front

A ____ ______ is a zone of transition between a mass of cold air moving forward and under a mass of hot air.

Stationary Front

A ________ ______ is a zone of transition between air masses with different densities which are not moving (or are moving very little)

Front

A narrow zone of transition between air masses with contrasting (different) densities

Clockwise

Wind (air) moving around an area of high pressure moves in a __________ direction

Counter Clockwise

Wind (air) moving around an area of low pressure moves in a ___________ direction

Horse Latitudes

An area of calm winds located in the subtropical anticyclones

Hadley Cells

A huge convection current in which the air rises over the equator and sinks at the subtropical anticyclones

Gravity

The force which attracts objects to the earth's surface (pulls them downward)

Pressure Gradient

In response to the atmospheric ________ ________ air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

The result of a balance between gravity and vertical atmospheric pressure gradient

Coriolis Force

The ________ ______ occurs because of the rotation of the earth; it twists winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere

Wind

When isobars are closely spaced, the horizontal air pressure gradient is strong and strong _____ occurs

Westerlies

Prevailing __________ are the most common winds in the United States

Friction

_________ (with trees, buildings, ect.) causes horizontal winds blowing near the earth's surface to slow down

Squall Line

A band of severe thunderstorms that form ahead of a fast moving cold front

Windshift Effect

Airplane crashes sometimes result when _________ _______ occurs (the wind speed and/or direction change suddenly and unexpectedly)

Hadley Cell

Huge convection current in which air rises over the equator and sinks at the subtropic anticyclone

Horse Latitudes

An area of calm winds in the subtropical anticyclones where air is sinking so it's hot and dry

Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

Thunderstorms at the equator where winds come together and rise

Doldrums

At the ITCZ where weather is the same day after day as thunderstorms occur but horizontal winds are light because air rising

Jet Stream

Narrow ribbons of very strong winds at the top of the troposphere

Land Breeze

Local wind circulation that occurs at night as a result of land cooling off faster than the water

Sea Breeze

Daytime circulation caused by land heating up more rapidly than water

Mountain Breeze

Occurs at night, mountainsides cool rapidly and air sinks into the valley

Valley Breeze

Daytime/ mountainsides are heated by solar radiation and air rises

Westerlies

Prevailing winds in meat of the U.S. caused by the fact that winds blowing northward from 30 N of the equator, the winds are twisted to the right so they end up blowing west to east

Trade Winds

Air moving southward from 30 N of the equator is twisted to the right by the coreolis force so winds blow from the east

Continental Arctic Air Mass

Exceptionally cold and dry

Continental Tropical Air Mass

Exceptionally hot and dry, usually forms over a desert

Continental Polar Air Mass

Air mass that is cold and dry

Maritime Tropical Air Mass

Warm and humid (maritime = over water)

Maritime Polar Air Mass

Cold and Humid

Occlusion (occluded front)

Occurs when a fast moving cold front catches up with a warm front

Squall Line

Band of vigorous thunderstorms that forms ahead of a fast moving cold front

Source Region

Area where an air mass develops/ Ideally flat with uniform character and light winds

Cold Front

A zone of transition between an advancing mass of cold air and the warm air it replaces

Warm Front

A zone where light, warmer air replaces colder air by overrunning it

Stationary Front

Front that has no movement or very little movement (drizzle)

Air Mass

Large body of air with similar properties of temperature and humidity in any horizontal direction

Convergence

Coming together and piling up, occurs at a surface low

Divergence

Spreading out of air that occurs at a surface high

Air Mass Weather

Air mass that controls the weather in a region for a long period of time

Anticyclone

High pressure area

Cyclone

Low pressure area

Counter clockwise

Direction of air movement around an area of low pressure

Clockwise

Direction of air movement around area of high pressure

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Result of balance between the upward vertical pressure gradient force and gravity

Pressure Gradient Force

Initiating force of wind blowing

Coriolis Force

Twists winds to the right in northern hemisphere: responsive force

Friction

Responsive force: acts against movement/ slows air down/ more friction near the surface

Station Pressure

Barometer reading at a particular reading and elevation

Sea Level Pressure

Station level reading is adjusted to what it would be at sea level

Rotation

The Coriolis force occurs due to the _________ of the earth

What three factors affect the Coriolis force, and how do they affect it?

1. Latitude: lowest at the equator, highest at the poles (Coriolis force)
2. Wind Speed: Faster wind, greater deflection to Coriolis force
3. Rotation of the earth

Higher, Lower

Air always moves from areas of ______ pressure to areas of _______ pressure

Clockwise, Outward

Air circulation around a surface high pressure is ____________ and ____________

Counter Clockwise, Inward

Air circulation around a surface low pressure area is __________________ and ____________

4 mb, Strong

Isobars are drawn at intervals of _____. Isobars close together indicate _______ winds

Bad/stormy

Low pressure (particularly dropping pressure) is associated with ___________ weather

1000, 30, 760

Standard air pressure is approximately _____ millibars, ___ inches of mercury, and ____ millimeters of mercury

10, 1

As we move upward from the surface, atmospheric pressure decreases by ___ mb per 100m or __ in for 1000 feet

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