Health Assessment Exam 3-Chapters 21-23

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Solid viscera:

Liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands, kidneys, ovaries and uterus

Hollow viscera:

Stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, colon and bladder.

Umbilical Cord:

Contains 2 arteries and 1 vein

Bladder in infants/children:

Located higher in the abdomen than in adults.

Pyrosis:

Heartburn is common in pregnant women due to acid reflux.

Complications of pregnancy:

Gastric motility decreases
Constipation & hemorrhoids
Separation of rectus abdominus muscle

Dysphagia:

Difficulty in swallowing

Cranial Nerve I:

Olfactory Nerve
Sensory: sense of smell

Cranial Nerve 2:

Optic:
Sensory: Visual acuity and visual fields by confrontation.

Cranial Nerve 3:

Oculomotor:
Motor: Up, down, and peripheral movement of eye

Cranial Nerve 4:

Trochlear: inferior lateral movement of eye

Cranial Nerve 5:

Trigeminal:
Sensory: sensation of face, mouth, nose, scalp, corneal reflex, mucus membranes
Motor: clenches teeth

Cranial Nerve 6:

Abducens:
Motor: lateral movement of the eye.

Cranial Nerve 7:

Facial:
Motor: facial expression, movement of forehead and mouth
Sensory: taste-sweet, sour, salty, bitter

Cranial Nerve 8:

Auditory (Vestibulocochlear):
Sensory: Whisper voice test, Rinne & Weber tuning fork test

Cranial Nerve 9:

Glossopharyngeal
Motor: swallowing and vocal cord movement
Sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue, taste

Cranial Nerve 10:

Vagus
Motor: swallowing and vocal cord movement
Sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue, taste

Cranial Nerve 11:

Spinal Accessory:
Motor: head movement & shoulder shrugging

Cranial Nerve 12:

Hypoglossal
Motor: Movement of tongue

Cerebral Cortex:

Divided into two hemispheres; left hemisphere is dominant in most people.

Four lobes of each hemisphere:

Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital.

Frontal lobe:

Personality, behavior, emotions & intellectual function.

Parietal Lobe:

Lobe that controls Sensation

Occipital lobe:

Visual receptor center

Temporal lobe:

Primary auditory reception center

Wernicke's Area:

Area in temporal lobe associated with language comprehension.

Broca's Area:

Area in frontal lobe that mediates motor speech.

Basal Ganglia:

Controls automatic associated movements; arm swinging w/legs during walking.

Thalamus:

Main relay station for NS; spinal cord and brain stem from synapses.

Hypothalamus:

Controls temperature, heart rate, blood pressure control, sleep center, pituitary gland regulator & autonomic NS activity & emotional status.

Cerebellum:

Motor coordination of voluntary movements, equilibrium and muscle tone; doesn't initiate, but coordinates movement.

Brainstem:

Midbrain, pons and medulla

Crossed representation:

Left cerebral cortex receives sensory info from and controls motor function of right side of body; vise versa.

Sensory Pathways:

Sensations to afferent fibers of peripheral nerve to posterior root to spinal cord; then one of two ways-spinothalamic tract or posterior columns.

Spinothalamic tract:

Sensory fibers that transmit pain, temperature, touch.

Posterior Columns:

Fibers conduct senations of position vibration and finely localized touch.

Corticospinal or pyramidal tract:

Corticospinal fibers mediate very skilled, discrete movements such as writing.

Extrapyramidal tracts:

Motor fibers maintain muscle tone & control body movements, such as walking.

Upper motor neurons:

Located withing CNS; convey impulses from motor areas of cerebral cortex to lower motor neurons in spinal cord. Ex of upper motor neuron disease-CVA, CP, MS.

Lower motor neurons:

Located mostly in Peripheral nervous system; Provides final direct contact w/muscles. Examples of LMN are cranial & spinal nerves.

Nerve:

A bundle of fibers outside the CNS

Peripheral Nervous System:

Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic nervous system & reflex arc.

Reflex Arc:

Four types:
Deep tendon reflexes-patellar or knee jerk
Superficial-corneal or abdominal reflex
Visceral-pupillary response to light
Pathologic (abnormal) -babinski / plantar reflex

Cranial nerves:

Enter & exit brain rather than spinal cord.

Spinal nerves:

Contain both sensory & motor function; enter & exit through spinal cord.

Autonomic Nervous System:

Mediates unconscious activity

Dysarthria:

Difficulity forming words.

Paresthesia:

Abnormal sensation, e.g., buring, tingling.

Dysmetria:

Inability to control range of motion of muscles.

Paralysis:

Loss of motor function due to a lesion in the neurologic or muscular system, or loss of sensory innervation.

Paresis:

Partial or incomplete paralysis.

Aura:

Subjection sensation proceeding a seizure.

Anosmia:

Decrease or loss of smell.

Ataxia:

uncoordinated or unsteady gait.

Romberg Test:

Stand w/feet together and arms at sides, close eyes. Positive sign is loss of balance.

Tandem walking:

Heel to toe walking test

Rapid Alternating Movements:

Pat knees w/both hands, turn hands over and pat knees w/back of hands.

Dysmetria:

Clumsy movement w/overshooting mark; alcohol intoxication; finger to nose test.

Hypoalgesia:

Decreased pain sensation.

Hyperalgesia:

Increased pain sensation.

Analgesia:

Absent pain sensation.

Hypoesthesia:

Decreased touch sensation.

Hyperesthesia:

Increased touch sensation.

Anesthesia:

Absent touch sensation.

Stereognosis:

Ability to recognize objects by touch

Astereognosis:

Inability to identify objects by touch correctly

Kinesthesia:

Ability to perceive passive movements of extremities.

Graphesthesia:

Ability to read a number traced on skin.

Two Point discrimination:

Ability to distinguish the separation of two stimultaneous pin points on skin.

Extinction:

Simultaneously touch both sides of body at same point w/both sensations felt

Point location:

Touch skin then withdraw; ask person to id point touched.

Clonus:

Set of rapid, rhythmic contractions of same muscle.

Hyperreflexia:

Exaggerated reflex

Hyporeflexia:

Absence of reflex.

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