Nerve Tissue and Nerves

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Exercise 25 (p. 193)

The nervous system is divided into two parts:

the (1) Central Nervous System (CNS), and the (2) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

The CNS consists of the

brain and spinal cord.

The PNS consists of the

cranial nerves and spinal nerves.

Nerve tissue is made up of two types of cells:

neurons and neuroglia.

The basic structural and functional units of the nervous system are

the neurons.

The functions of neurons include:

(1) detecting stimuli, (2) conducting impulses, (3) some involvement in decision-making.

The parts of a neuron include the:

(1) cell body, (2) dendrites, and (3) the axon.

The nucleus of a neuron is housed in the

cell body.

Dendrites

bring information toward the cell body.

The axon

takes information away from the cell body.

The axon is a _____ process than are the dendrites.

longer

Neurons can be categorized into the three following structural types:

(1) unipolar, (2) bipolar, and (3) multipolar.

The most common structural type of neurons are

unipolar neurons.

Bipolar neurons

are associated with special senses.

Multipolar neurons are found in the

CNS.

Neurons can be categorized into the three following functional types:

(1) sensory (afferent), (2) motor (efferent), and (3) interneurons (association or internucial).

Most sensory neurons are

unipolar, but some are bipolar.

Sensory neurons conduct action potentials

toward the CNS.

Motor neurons are classified structurally as

multipolar.

Motor neurons conduct action potentials

away from the CNS.

Interneurons are classified structurally as

mutipolar.

Interneurons form

links between other neurons.

Interneurons are found in the

brain and spinal cord.

Neuroglia is the metaphorical ____ of the nervous system.

glue

Neuroglia act as

protective and supportive cells of the nervous system.

There are ____ types of neuroglia.

six

The CNS has four types of neuroglia:

(1) astrocytes, (2) microglia, (3) ependyma, and (4) oligodendrocytes.

Astrocytes are the ____ neuroglia of the CNS.

multifunctional

The neuroglia of the CNS that performs an immune function is the

microglia.

Ependyma covers the insides of the

ventricles, or spaces in the brain.

Oligodendrocytes of the CNS produce

myelin.

This neuroglia is either cuboidal or columnar and sometimes has cilia

ependyma.

List the neuroglia of the CNS in order of most processes to least processes:

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia.

The PNS has two types of neuroglia:

(1) Schwann, and (2) satellite.

The Schwann cells, a type of neuroglia of the PNS, produce

myelin.

The function of the satellite cells is

unknown.

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