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Civilization

A society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)

Nomad

A member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons

Fertile

Productive land, soil for farming

Domesticate

Make fit for cultivation, domestic life, and service to humans

East Africa

A geographical area in eastern Africa

Irrigation

Supplying dry land with water by means of canals

Surplus

A quantity much larger than is needed

Artisan

A skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft

Social Class

People having the same social or economic status

Scribe

Someone employed to make written copies of documents and manuscripts

City-State

Area under one government

Polytheism

Belief in multiple Gods

Myth

A traditional story accepted as history

Sumer

An area in the southern region of Babylonia in present-day Iraq

Mesopotamia

The land between the Tigris and Euphrates

Fertile Crescent

A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates

Tigris River

An Asian river above the Euphrates

Euphrates River

A river in southwestern Asia below the Tigris

How Civilizations Developed

From small farming towns that grew into larger cities that grew into civilizations

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