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Joint:

Place of union for two or more bones

Non-synovial joints:

Bones untifed by fibrous tissue or cartilage and are immovabe.

Synovial joints:

Freely movable joints

Cartilage:

Avascular connective tissue w/slow cell turnover.

Ligaments:

Fibrous bands running directly from one bone to another that strengthen joints.

Bursa:

An enclosed sac filled with viscous synovial fluid, located in areas of potential friction (shoulder, knee).

Muscles:

40-50 percent body weight; Contraction produces movement

Skeletal muscles:

Voluntary muscles under conscious control

Fasciculi:

Bundles of muscle fibers

Tendon:

A strong fibrous cord taht attaches muscle and bone.

Protraction:

Moving body part forward and parallel to ground

Temporomandibular Joint:

The articulation of the mandible and temporal bone

Vertebrae:

33 connecting bones stacked in vertical column

Breakdown of Vertebrae:

Cervical 7; thoracic 12, lumbar 5, sacral 5; coccygeal 3 or 4

Vertebral landmarks:

Spinous processes of C7 & T1 at base of neck;
Inferior angle of scapula at T7 & T8;

Intrevertebral disks:

Elastic fibrocartilaginous plates that have a nucleus pulposus as shock absorbers

Glenohumeral Joint:

Articulation of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula; ball & socket joint.

Rotator cuff:

4 powerful muscles that enclose the glenohumeral joint, to support and stabilize it.

Acromion Process:

Landmark of the scapula on the very top of shoulder

Subacromial bursa:

Bursa in the shoulder by rotator cuff

Medial & lateral epicondyles:

Palpable landmarks of elbow on the humerus.

Olercranon process of Ulna:

Large area on the humerus between the medial & lateral epicondyles

Radiocarpal joint:

Wrist

Knee:

The articulation of three bones: the femur, tibia and patella

Supratellar pouch:

The knee's synovial membrane

Medial & lateral menisci:

Two wedge shaped cartilages that cushion the tibia and femur.

Tibiotalar Joint:

Ankle-the articulation of the tibia, fibula and talus; hinge joint

Ankle landmarks:

Medial and lateral malleolus

Osteoporosis:

Loss of bone density

Epiphyses:

Growth plates

Subluxation:

Partial dislocation of a joint

Phalens test:

Hold both hands back to back with flexing wrists at 90 degrees

Tinels Sign:

Direct percussion of median nerve at wrist

Bulge Sign:

Swelling at the suprapatellar pouch; move fluid from side to side

Ballottement of the Patella:

Compress suprapatellar pouch to move fluid into knee joint

McMurrays Test:

Patient supine, flex knee and rotate leg

LeSegues Test:

Raise uneffected leg to test for back and leg pain

Ortolani's Maneuver:

Checks for infant hip displacement

Allis Test:

Checks for infant hip displacement by comparing leg lenght

Rheumatoid Arthritis:

Chronic systemic inflammatory disease of joints and surrounding connective tissue

Osteoarthritis:

Non-inflammatory, localized progressive disorder of articular cartilages, subchondral bone and formation of new bone

Polydactyly:

Extra digits

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